What’s NORMal for Fracking? Estimating Total Radioactivity of Produced Fluids

Abstract

Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) found in liquid wastes from hydraulic fracturing are an emerging environmental health concern. The heavily drilled Marcellus Shale, for example, contains isotopes of radium, polonium, and lead. However, the few studies that have focused on NORM in fracking wastewater (produced fluids) have reported on a… (More)
DOI: 10.1289/ehp.123-A186

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