What's in a drop? Correlating observations and outcomes to guide macromolecular crystallization experiments.

  title={What's in a drop? Correlating observations and outcomes to guide macromolecular crystallization experiments.},
  author={Joseph R. Luft and Jennifer R. Wolfley and Edward H. Snell},
  journal={Crystal growth \& design},
  volume={11 3},
Observations of crystallization experiments are classified as specific outcomes and integrated through a phase diagram to visualize solubility and thereby direct subsequent experiments. Specific examples are taken from our high-throughput crystallization laboratory which provided a broad scope of data from 20 million crystallization experiments on 12,500 different biological macromolecules. The methods and rationale are broadly and generally applicable in any crystallization laboratory. Through… 
The detection and subsequent volume optimization of biological nanocrystals
The application of second-order nonlinear imaging of chiral crystals and ultraviolet two-photon excited fluorescence detection is shown to be applicable in a high-throughput manner to rapidly verify the presence of nanocrystals in crystallization screening conditions.
Computational crystallization.
Comparing Chemistry to Outcome: The Development of a Chemical Distance Metric, Coupled with Clustering and Hierarchal Visualization Applied to Macromolecular Crystallography
A cocktail distance coefficient was developed to quantitatively compare macromolecule crystallization conditions and outcome and appears to be robust in this application, and coupled with hierarchical clustering and the overlay of crystallization outcome, reveals information of biological relevance.
Computational methods for long-term protein phase behavior analysis
Morphologic and kinetic features obtained from crystallization images generated with high-throughput microbatch experiments have been visualized with radar charts in combination with the empirical phase diagram method, thereby showing that the EPD method can support high-Throughput crystallization experiments in its data amount as well as its data complexity.
A high-throughput colourimetric method for the determination of pH in crystallization screens.
A high-throughput method for pH determination of buffered solutions has been developed with results comparable to those of a pH meter.
Sparse and incomplete factorial matrices to screen membrane protein 2D crystallization.
A universal indicator dye pH assay for crystallization solutions and other high-throughput applications.
A colour-based pH assay that is rapid, uses very little reagent and is suitable for 96-well or higher density plates has been developed.
MPI tray: a versatile crystallization plate for membrane proteins
High-throughput crystallization of biological macromolecules is usually performed on multi-well plates, the design of which needs to address different and sometimes conflicting requirements. In this


Initial evaluations of the reproducibility of vapor-diffusion crystallization.
Despite the fact that industry-standard lysozyme was used in tests, it was rare that crystals were obtained reproducibly; this suggests that replication whilst screening might improve the success rate of macromolecular crystallization.
Phase knowledge enables rational screens for protein crystallization
It is shown that knowledge of the phase behavior of a protein allows one to create a rational screen that increases the success rate of crystallizing challenging proteins, and the identification of reagents based on an understanding of protein solubility promotes high crystallization rates and the production of diffraction-quality crystals.
Nucleation of protein crystals.
Comparative studies of protein crystallization by vapour-diffusion and microbatch techniques.
  • N. Chayen
  • Chemistry, Materials Science
    Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography
  • 1998
This topical review compares the results of examples of proteins which were crystallized by both vapour-diffusion and microbatch methods to find some specific conditions where one method appears more favourable than the other.
Increasing the size of microcrystals by fine sampling of pH limits
A persistent problem in macromolecular crystallization is that of the promotion of easily and rapidly grown microcrystals to a size and quality sufficient for X-ray diffraction analysis. This is
Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection
I: INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW 1. Introduction II: CRYSTALLIZATION 2. Crystallization Theory 3. Practical Methods of Crystallization 4. Screening 5. Optimization 6. Strategies when high quality