West Nile virus lineage 2 as a cause of zoonotic neurological disease in humans and horses in southern Africa.

  title={West Nile virus lineage 2 as a cause of zoonotic neurological disease in humans and horses in southern Africa.},
  author={Marietjie Venter and Robert Swanepoel},
  journal={Vector borne and zoonotic diseases},
  volume={10 7},
West Nile virus (WNV) is widely distributed in South Africa, but since a few cases of neurological disease have been reported from this region, endemic lineage 2 strains were postulated to be of low virulence. Several cases of nonfatal encephalitis in humans as well as fatal cases in a foal, dog, and ostrich chicks have, however, been associated with lineage 2 WNV in South Africa. The pathogenesis of lineage 2 WNV strains was investigated using mouse neuroinvasive experiments, gene expression… 
West Nile Virus: From Africa to Europe, America, and Beyond
The recent pattern of sporadic cases and outbreaks of WNV that has emerged in Europe and North America shows no signs of abating and broad areas of high risk can be identified but the sporadic, local and regional outbreaks that occur within these areas remain elusively unpredictable.
Differential Virulence and Pathogenesis of West Nile Viruses
The current state of knowledge on factors that trigger WNV dissemination and CNS invasion as well as on the inflammatory response and CNS damage induced by WNV are summarized.
Full-Genome Sequence of a Neuroinvasive West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain from a Fatal Horse Infection in South Africa
The complete genome sequence of a lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strain that resulted in fatal neurological disease in a horse in South Africa is reported.
Genome Sequencing of West Nile Virus from Human Cases in Greece, 2012
This study characterized for the first time a WNV full genome from a patient with WNND from Greece, demonstrated the persistence of the Nea Santa strain, and suggested that the virus might have locally evolved.
Emergence of West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Europe: A Review on the Introduction and Spread of a Mosquito-Borne Disease
The emergence of WNV lineage 2 in Europe, its over-wintering and subsequent spread over large distances illustrates the repeated threat of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.
West Nile Virus Infection
Control of WNV outbreaks largely depends on vector control measures and interventions and many developments in the fields of WN diagnosis and vaccination have been described in the recent years and may help control WNV spread.
West Nile virus: A re-emerging pathogen revisited.
This review updates the most recent investigations in different aspects of WNV life cycle: molecular virology, transmission dynamics, host range, clinical presentations, epidemiology, ecology, diagnosis, control, and prevention, and highlights some aspects that certainly require further research.
Whole genome phylogenetic investigation of a West Nile virus strain isolated from a tick sampled from livestock in north eastern Kenya
The isolation of WNV from ticks collected from livestock and wildlife in Ijara District of Kenya suggests that lineage 1 strains from Africa could be dispersed through tick vectors by wild migratory birds to Europe and beyond.
Molecular Determinants of West Nile Virus Virulence and Pathogenesis in Vertebrate and Invertebrate Hosts
An overview of the known molecular determinants of WNV virulence, according to invertebrate (mosquitoes) or vertebrate hosts (mammalian and avian), are presented and discussed.


Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States.
In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths of
West Nile: worldwide current situation in animals and humans.
Investigation of an outbreak of encephalomyelitis caused by West Nile virus in 136 horses.
  • M. Ward, M. Lévy, P. Webb
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • 2004
Owners of horses in northern Indiana should have their horses fully protected by vaccination against WNV before June, and vaccination of previously nonvaccinated horses should commence at least 4 months before the anticipated peak in seasonal mosquito numbers.
Envelope Protein Glycosylation Status Influences Mouse Neuroinvasion Phenotype of Genetic Lineage 1 West Nile Virus Strains
The enhanced virulence of North American WNV strains compared with other Old World lineage 1 strains is at least partly mediated by envelope protein glycosylation, according to site-specific mutagenesis studies.
West Nile Virus Strains Differ in Mouse Neurovirulence and Binding to Mouse or Human Brain Membrane Receptor Preparations
19 strains of West Nile virus were compared to determine whether biological differences exist between them that can be correlated with genotype, and the ability of these viruses to bind to mouse and human brain tissue membrane receptor preparations (MRPs).
[West Nile virus: in France again, in humans and horses].
West Nile virus (WNV) is a common arbovirosis, transmitted by mosquitoes mainly Culex. WNV is commonly responsible for equine epizootics and epidemics in humans in sub-Saharan Africa. It has been
West Nile virus: recent trends in diagnosis and vaccine development.
West Nile virus infection of Thoroughbred horses in South Africa (2000-2001).
In contrast to recent reports from Europe, North Africa, Asia and North America, the results of the field and experimental studies indicated that exposure of horses to the endemic southern African strains of WNV was not associated with neurological disease.
West Nile virus and other zoonotic viruses in Russia: examples of emerging-reemerging situations.
The emerging WNF situation in Russia for the last 4 years probably has been the result of not only natural and social factors, but also to introduction of more virulent strains or by evolution of the virus.