West Nile virus infections are here! Are we prepared to face another flavivirus epidemic?

@article{CastroJorge2019WestNV,
  title={West Nile virus infections are here! Are we prepared to face another flavivirus epidemic?},
  author={Lu{\'i}za Antunes de Castro-Jorge and M{\'a}rcio Junio Lima Siconelli and Beatriz Dos Santos Ribeiro and Fl{\'a}via Masson de Moraes and Jonathan Ballico de Moraes and Mayara R Agostinho and Taline M Klein and Vitor Gonçalves Floriano and B.A.L. da Fonseca},
  journal={Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical},
  year={2019},
  volume={52},
  pages={
          e20190089
        }
}
Emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as chikungunya and Zika viruses, are a major threat to public health in countries like Brazil where biodiversity is high and medical care is sometimes precarious. West Nile fever is a disease caused by the West Nile Virus (WNV), an RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. It is transmitted by infected mosquitoes to numerous animals like birds, reptiles and mammals, including human and non-human primates. In the last decade, the number… 

Figures from this paper

Epidemiological surveillance of West Nile virus in the world and Brazil
TLDR
The importance of equine surveillance and the gap that veterinarians can fill on the front line in human surveillance, in Brazil and worldwide, is discussed in the context of “One Health”.
West Nile Virus in Brazil
TLDR
A novel, climate-informed theoretical perspective of the potential transmission of WNV across the country highlights the state of Piauí as particularly relevant for WNV epidemiology in Brazil, although it does not reject possible circulation in other states.
Serological Evidence of Arboviruses in Horses During West Nile Fever Monitoring Surveillance in Southeastern Brazil
TLDR
Assessment of horses on the rural properties of the Espirito Santo state, Brazil indicates that the region provides ideal conditions for the emergence of arboviruses, reinforcing the need for further surveillance of mosquito-transmitted diseases in domestic animals.
Twenty years of West Nile virus spread and evolution in the Americas visualized by Nextstrain
TLDR
Overall, this review showcases how genomics can track West Nile virus spread and evolution, as well as potentially uncover novel targeted control measures to help alleviate its public health burden.
Evidence for current circulation of an ancient West Nile virus strain (NY99) in Brazil
TLDR
The findings reinforce the hypothesis that WNV has been silently circulating in Brazil for many years and belongs to lineage 1a, clustering with NY99 strain, that disappeared from the USA since 2005.
A Plant-Produced Virus-Like Particle Displaying Envelope Protein Domain III Elicits an Immune Response Against West Nile Virus in Mice
TLDR
This study presents the potential plants being used as biofactories for making significant pharmaceutical products for the “One Health” Initiative and could be used to address the need for their local production in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
Rational control of poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase fidelity by modulating motif D loop conformational dynamics.
TLDR
Rational engineering of these interactions may be important in the generation of live, attenuated vaccine strains, considering the established relationships between RdRp function and viral pathogenesis.
Interdisciplinarity in the control strategy for urban vectors of arbovirus infections: a necessary dimension for Brazil.
Correspondência E. D. Wermelinger Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Rua Leopoldo Bulhões 1480, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21041-210, Brasil.
Impact of climate change on West Nile virus distribution in South America.
TLDR
It was showed that environmental variables can directly alter the occurrence of WNV, with lower precipitation and higher temperatures associated with increased virus incidence and high greenhouse gas emission levels.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 130 REFERENCES
Surveillance and Diagnosis of West Nile Virus in the Face of Flavivirus Cross-Reactivity
TLDR
The utility of novel molecular methods, alongside traditional molecular and serological methods, in WNV diagnosis and epidemiological research are discussed, and the recent studies implementing WNV surveillance of mosquitoes and birds within the One Health initiative are reviewed.
O vírus do Nilo Ocidental
TLDR
This article presents a brief review on the main epidemiological and clinico-pathological aspects of WNV infection, with emphasis to human, horse and avian infections.
West Nile Virus
TLDR
This review describes the molecular structure and protein function of WNV with emphasis on protein involvement in the modulation of antiviral immune responses and develops different strategies to establish infection, replication, and successful transmission.
West Nile virus in the vertebrate world
TLDR
The increased importance of WNV infections has led to the development of killed, live-attenuated, DNA-recombinant and chimeric veterinary vaccines.
[West Nile virus infection].
  • Y. GeQ. Zhu
  • Environmental Science
    Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • 2004
TLDR
Outbreaks were reported across North America in humans, horses and captive alligators; sporadic cases occurred in less susceptible mammals; and asymptomatic infections were recognized in a number of mammalian and several reptilian species.
West Nile Virus, Venezuela
TLDR
Serologic evidence of establishment of WNV in South America is reported and it is hypothesized that ornithophilic mosquitoes (such as some Culex spp.), which are present in the area in consistently high numbers, acquired the virus through hematophagous feeding on recently infected, migrating birds.
First isolation of West Nile virus in Brazil
TLDR
The first isolation of WNV in Brazil from a horse with neurologic disease, which was clustered into lineage 1a with others US WNV strains isolated in beginning of 2000’s decade is reported.
West Nile Virus Antibodies in Colombian Horses
TLDR
The first evidence for WNV transmission in South America is reported and efforts are needed to isolate the virus or detect specific viral RNA to confirm this finding and to identify vectors and vertebrate hosts involved in W NV transmission in Colombia.
A study of the ecology of West Nile virus in Egypt.
TLDR
The main cycle of the virus is probably through mosquitoes and birds in which man may become involved, and there is evidence for believing that the virus over-winters through a process of retarded transmission by the mosquitoes that remain active throughout the colder months, although the possible role of ticks as a reservoir of theirus should be further investigated.
A Review of Vaccine Approaches for West Nile Virus
TLDR
The West Nile virus (WNC) first appeared in North America in 1999 and the establishment and recent spread of lineage II WNV virus strains into Western Europe and the presence of neurovirulent and neuroinvasive strains among them is a cause of major concern.
...
...