West Nile Virus: An Overview of Its Spread in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin in Contrast to Its Spread in the Americas

@article{Zeller2003WestNV,
  title={West Nile Virus: An Overview of Its Spread in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin in Contrast to Its Spread in the Americas},
  author={Herve Zeller and Isabelle Schuffenecker},
  journal={European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases},
  year={2003},
  volume={23},
  pages={147-156}
}
  • H. Zeller, I. Schuffenecker
  • Published 19 February 2004
  • Medicine
  • European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
West Nile (WN) virus is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus. It is widely distributed in Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and southern Europe and was recently introduced to North America. Birds are involved in the cycle of transmission as amplifying hosts. Humans and horses are considered accidental dead-end hosts. WN fever was initially considered a minor arbovirosis, usually inducing a nonsymptomatic or a mild flu-like illness in humans, but some cases of encephalitis associated with fatalities… 
Emergence of West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Europe: A Review on the Introduction and Spread of a Mosquito-Borne Disease
TLDR
The emergence of WNV lineage 2 in Europe, its over-wintering and subsequent spread over large distances illustrates the repeated threat of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.
Transmission dynamics and changing epidemiology of West Nile virus
  • B. Blitvich
  • Medicine, Geography
    Animal Health Research Reviews
  • 2008
TLDR
This review summarizes the current understanding of WNV with particular emphasis on its transmission dynamics and changing epidemiology.
The mosquito borne West Nile virus infection: is it threating to Egypt or a neglected endemic disease?
TLDR
This review provided an overview of the current understanding flaviviruses mainly WNFV and primary care physician and senior nurse should be able to include the disaster diseases in differential diagnosis of various clinical conditions.
West Nile Virus Infection in Belgian Traveler Returning from Greece
TLDR
A confirmed case of WNV encephalitis imported by a traveler returning from Greece is described, with a 73-year-old Belgian woman, who had a medical history of lymphoma, who sought treatment at the Kavala General Hospital with a 6-day history of fever, headache, malaise, nausea, confusion, decline of consciousness, and neck stiffness.
[West Nile virus; ecology and epidemiology of an emerging pathogen in Colombia].
West Nile virus (WNV) has an enzootic mosquito-bird-mosquito cycle in nature, Culex sp mosquitoes being the main vectors. Birds are the main amplifying hosts. Humans and horses are incidental
First report outside Eastern Europe of West Nile virus lineage 2 related to the Volgograd 2007 strain, northeastern Italy, 2014
TLDR
This is the first evidence of the circulation of a WNV lineage 2 strain closely related to the Volgograd 2007 outside Eastern Europe, where it has caused large human outbreaks.
Le virus West Nile: diagnostic, surveillance et évolution épidémiologique en Europe
TLDR
Control of West Nile Virus infection still relies heavily on reinforced surveillance of neurological conditions in humans and horses, particularly in the Mediterranean basin, and in ecological and climatic conditions favourable to the multiplication of vector mosquitoes.
West Nile virus infections in Romania - past, present and perspective.
West Nile virus (WNV) is currently the most widely distributed arbovirus in the world, occurring on all continents and causing sporadic cases and outbreaks of human and equine disease in Europe
Seroprevalence of Neutralizing Antibodies to West Nile Virus (WNV) among Patients with Pyrexia of an Unknown Origin (PUO) In Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne flavivirus, first isolated in Uganda in 1937 (1). It affects a wide range of vertebrates, including birds and mammals (2). The natural cycle of infection
West Nile virus infection in South-eastern Europe and in the Eastern Mediterranean area
The West Nile virus (WNV) was identified in Uganda in 1937. This virus appeared in the Mediterranean area in the early 1950s, causing an outbreak in Egypt. Since then, WNV caused a series of
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 100 REFERENCES
West Nile virus.
West Nile (WN) virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and human, equine, and avian neuropathogen. The virus is indigenous to Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia, and has recently caused large epidemics
Rôle des oiseaux migrateurs dans l'épidémiologie du virus West Nile
TLDR
Combinations of surveys of potential regions of reemergence of WN virus in Europe in connexion with other places in the Middle East, North Africa and tropical Africa would be important for a better understanding of the epidemiology of this arbovirosis.
Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States.
In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths of
Serological evidence of West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Sindbis virus infection of birds in the UK.
TLDR
The detection of specific neutralizing antibodies to WNV in birds provides a plausible explanation for the lack of evidence of a decrease in the bird population in the UK compared with North America.
West Nile in the Mediterranean Basin: 1950‐2000
TLDR
The virus isolated from a brain biopsy is closely related to the Morocco‐1996 and Italy‐1998 isolates from horses, to the Senegal‐1993 and Kenya‐1998 isolate from mosquitoes, and to the human isolate from Volgograd‐1999, and distinguishable from the group including the Israel‐1998 and New York‐1999 isolates, as well as the Tunisia‐1997 human isolate.
The role of birds in the ecology of West Nile virus in Europe and Africa.
TLDR
The unique susceptibility of young domestic geese in Israel in 1997-2000 to WN virus and the isolation of similar strains from migrating White storks suggest that the recent isolates are more pathogenic for certain avain species and that migrating birds do play a crucial role in geographical spread of the virus.
Emergence of Usutu virus, an African Mosquito-Borne Flavivirus of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus Group, Central Europe
TLDR
If established in central Europe, this virus may have considerable effects on avian populations; whether USUV has the potential to cause severe human disease is unknown.
First field evidence for natural vertical transmission of West Nile virus in Culex univittatus complex mosquitoes from Rift Valley province, Kenya.
TLDR
A phylogenetic analysis of the complete amino acid sequence of the viral envelope glycoprotein demonstrated a sister relationship with a Culex pipiens mosquito isolate from Romania made in 1996, which strongly suggests that vertical transmission of the virus occurs in the primary maintenance mosquito vector in Kenya.
West Nile encephalitis epidemic in southeastern Romania
TLDR
The epidemic in Bucharest reflected increased regional WNF transmission in 1996 and Epidemics of Cx pipiens-borne WNF could occur in other European cities with conditions conducive to transmission.
European experience with the West Nile virus ecology and epidemiology: could it be relevant for the New World?
TLDR
A review ofWest Nile virus (WNV) and the epidemiology of West Nile fever (WNF) in Europe is presented and it is very probable that WNV strains are transported between sub-Saharan Africa and Europe by migratory birds.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...