West Nile Virus: A Primer for the Clinician

  title={West Nile Virus: A Primer for the Clinician},
  author={Lyle R. Petersen and Anthony A. Marfin},
  journal={Annals of Internal Medicine},
Four centuries of travel and commerce have led to the North American importation of several important vector-borne human pathogens, including dengue, yellow fever, malaria, and plague. The 1999 appearance of the West Nile virus in New York City may prove to be the best-documented introduction of a new, vector-borne human pathogen into the United States in the past century (1). It remains unknown how the West Nile virus came to North America. However, because it first appeared in a major… 

West Nile Virus – An Emerging Pathogen

Clinicians should be familiar with the clinical presentations of this mosquito-borne flavivirus, as West Nile virus infection among patients hospitalized during outbreaks are fever, weakness, nausea, vomiting, headache and changes in mental status.

West Nile virus and transfusion safety in North America: response to an emerging pathogen

Although case reports decreased in 2004 and 2005, the still substantial number of cases (1294 neuroinvasive cases in 2005) indicate that the virus has become endemic throughout the continental USA.

West Nile virus and North America: an unfolding story.

  • A. Glaser
  • Medicine
    Revue scientifique et technique
  • 2004
The features of this extraordinary epidemic are discussed, the need for an integrated surveillance system, greater diagnostic capacity and improved control strategies are emphasised, and the recent recognition of a number of non-vector modes of transmission is revealed.

West Nile virus in the United States: an update on an emerging infectious disease.

Physicians should consider West Nile virus infection when evaluating febrile patients who have unexplained neurologic symptoms, muscle weakness, or erythematous rash during late spring through early fall, or throughout the year in warm climates.

[West Nile fever/encephalitis as one of the arboviral infections].

The endemic area has expanded in North America and Siberia and West Nile virus may enter Japan in the near future; therefore, the world should keep paying attention to the endemic and epidemic situations in the world.

West Nile Virus, a Reemerging Virus.

This review envisages bringing in to light up to date information on WNV epidemiology, vector competence, molecular biology, phylogeny, diagnosis and management to provide an in-depth understanding of the resurgence of the virus which will aid in the establishment of the appropriate strategies such as regular surveillance.

Fiebre del Nilo Oeste

Although human vaccines for West Nile virus are under development, the most effective to way reduce local population of mosquitoes is to eliminate sources of standing water and preventing vector mosquitoes from biting humans by using mosquito repellents and barrier methods.

West Nile virus: where are we now?

West Nile virus - Mosquitoes no longer just an annoyance!

  • D. Moore
  • Medicine
    The Canadian journal of infectious diseases = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses
  • 2003
West Nile virus infection is mainly a disease of young children, who develop a mild nonspecific febrile illness in endemic countries, and adults are usually immune.

West Nile Virus: Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Prevention

West Nile virus was recognized in the United States for the first time in 1999, when it caused an epidemic of encephalitis and meningitis in New York City, NY. Since then, the disease has been



West Nile Virus: Uganda, 1937, to New York City, 1999

  • C. Hayes
  • Medicine
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2001
Observations on the biology of West Nile virus made over about 60 years prior to the recent epidemics are compared to observations made in association with these urban epidemics, suggesting a change in the virulence of the virus toward this host.

The West Nile Virus Encephalitis Outbreak in the United States (1999‐2000)

The NYC outbreak resulted in the first cases of WNV infection in the Western Hemisphere and the first arboviral infection in NYC since yellow fever in the nineteenth century and is now a public health concern in the United States.

The West Nile virus encephalitis outbreak in the United States (1999-2000): from Flushing, New York, to beyond its borders.

The NYC outbreak resulted in the first cases of WNV infection in the Western Hemisphere and the first arboviral infection in NYC since yellow fever in the nineteenth century and is now a public health concern in the United States.

The West Nile Virus outbreak of 1999 in New York: the Flushing Hospital experience.

West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, which has been known to cause human infection in Africa, the Middle East, and southwestern Asia, but never in the Americas.

Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States.

In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths of

West Nile virus: a reemerging global pathogen.

The close genetic relationship between WN virus isolates from Israel and New York suggests that the virus was imported into North America from the Middle East.

The Ecology of West Nile Virus in South Africa and the Occurrence of Outbreaks in Humans

  • P. Jupp
  • Biology
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2001
Genetic relatedness of isolates from different countries showed two lineages, with one lineage comprising only African isolates, including 25 South African strains, which suggests that the viral enzooticity does not depend on annual importation of virus in migrant birds.

The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999.

BACKGROUND In late August 1999, an unusual cluster of cases of meningoencephalitis associated with muscle weakness was reported to the New York City Department of Health. The initial epidemiologic

West Nile fever--a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe.

Environmental factors, including human activities, that enhance population densities of vector mosquitoes (heavy rains followed by floods, irrigation, higher than usual temperature, or formation of ecologic niches that enable mass breeding of mosquitoes) could increase the incidence of West Nile fever.