Welfare State and Labor Mobility: The Impact of Bismarck's Social Legislation on German Emigration before World War I

@article{KhoudourCastras2008WelfareSA,
  title={Welfare State and Labor Mobility: The Impact of Bismarck's Social Legislation on German Emigration before World War I},
  author={David Khoudour-Cast{\'e}ras},
  journal={The Journal of Economic History},
  year={2008},
  volume={68},
  pages={211 - 243}
}
The rapid decline of German emigration before World War I constitutes a puzzle that traditional explanations have difficulty in solving. The article shows that the social legislation implemented by Bismarck during the 1880s—the most developed at the time—played a key role in this process. Indeed, candidates for migration considered not only the gap between “direct wages” (labor earnings) in the United States and Germany, but also the differential in “indirect wages,” that is, social benefits… 

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