Weighing Diverse Theoretical Models on Turkish Maqam Music Against Pitch Measurements: A Comparison of Peaks Automatically Derived from Frequency Histograms with Proposed Scale Tones

  title={Weighing Diverse Theoretical Models on Turkish Maqam Music Against Pitch Measurements: A Comparison of Peaks Automatically Derived from Frequency Histograms with Proposed Scale Tones},
  author={Baris Bozkurt and O Yarman and Mustafa Kemal Karaosmanoglu and Can Akkoç},
  journal={Journal of New Music Research},
  pages={45 - 70}
Abstract Since the early 20th century, various theories have been advanced in order to mathematically explain and notate modes of Traditional Turkish music known as maqams. In this article, maqam scales according to various theoretical models based on different tunings are compared with pitch measurements obtained from select recordings of master Turkish performers in order to study their level of match with analysed data. Chosen recordings are subjected to a fully computerized sequence of… 

Weighing several theoretical models on Makam music against pitch-histograms

 Ozan Yarman is a Pianist-Composer-Music Theorist born in 1978 in Istanbul. He received his Ph.D. degree in Musicology from the Istanbul Technical University Turkish Music State Conservatory with


This study offers a mathematically rigorous, yet straightforward, fixed-pitch tuning strategy to the problem of adequate sounding and notating of essential Turkish makam genera, in contradistinction

Similarity Measures for Traditional Turkish Art Music

Comparison of pitch histograms for TTAM corresponds to the research domain in pattern recognition: finding an appropriate similarity measure in relation with the metric axioms and characteristics of the data.

A computational analysis of Turkish makam music based on a probabilistic characterization of segmented phrases

An automatic analysis algorithm that takes as input symbolic data in the form of machine-readable scores that are segmented into phrases that outputs for each phrase the most likely makam the phrase comes from.

Automatic Tonic Identification in Indian Art Music: Approaches and Evaluation

It is shown that the approaches that combine multi-pitch analysis with machine learning provide the best performance in most cases (90% identification accuracy on average), and are robust across the aforementioned contexts compared to the approaches based on expert knowledge.


  • Engineering
  • 2018
This paper presents an automatic music transcription (AMT) system which accepts monophonic instrumental ney (flute-like woodwind instrument) recordings of traditional Turkish art music (shortly

A Hierarchical Approach to Makam Classification of Turkish Makam Music, Using Symbolic Data

Results show that the hierarchical approach is better, compared to a straightforward n-gram classification, for the makams which have similar pitch space, such as Hüseyni–Muhayyerand Rast–Mahur.

Modeling Intonation in Non-Western Musical Cultures

Musical cultures around the world use tuning systems very different from the tuning system used in Western music. Comparing and contrasting intonation from various cultures could give insight into

Evaluation of the Makam Scale Theory of Arel for Music Information Retrieval on Traditional Turkish Art Music

This paper evaluates the most influential (yet disputable) theory of TTAM, Arel theory, by means of a makam classification task, to understand whether it can provide a basis for MIR studies on TTAM in a similar way western music theory provides a basis on which MIR techniques can be based.

An Investigation of the Role of Diatonic Functions in the Seyir Phenomenon of Turkish Makam Music : Case of ‘ Hicaz Family ’

A novel mathematical approach is presented that extracts sets of features related to diatonic functions out of a large collection of pieces in Turkish music by comparing the Kullback-Leibler divergences of 4 art and 4 folk music pieces to reveal how closely the pieces under consideration align with the given makam type.



An Automatic Pitch Analysis Method for Turkish Maqam Music

A new method to automatically detect the tonic of a recording, align the data, and estimate overall frequency histograms from large databases is proposed and it is shown that such histograms can be successfully used for pitch scale (tuning) studies on the recordings of Tanburi Cemil Bey, an undisputed master of the genre.

Non-Deterministic Scales Used in Traditional Turkish Music

In this study actual frequencies used by master musicians during an improvisation are measured in Hertz and analyzed with the long term goal of characterizing the underlying modal scales in the form of distributions.

A Comparative Evaluation of Pitch Notations in Turkish Makam Music

In the Middle East, Abjad notation has been available since the day of Al-Kindi (9 th century). However, Abjad was never used except as a theoretical tool. A handful of ex- tant musical examples show

YIN, a fundamental frequency estimator for speech and music.

An algorithm is presented for the estimation of the fundamental frequency (F0) of speech or musical sounds. It is based on the well-known autocorrelation method with a number of modifications that

The Maqam Phenomenon: An Improvisation Technique in the Music of the Middle East

The maqam represents a unique improvisatory process in the art music of a large part of the world. Geographically this region includes the countries of North Africa, the Near East and Central Asia;

Safiyu¨ddin-i Urmevi ve erefiyye Risalesi. Ankara: Atatu¨rk Ku¨ltu¨r Merkezi Yayını

  • 2007

79-tone tuning & theory for Turkish maqam music

  • PhD thesis, _
  • 2008

Intonation in Theory and Practice of Greek and Turkish Music

  • I. Zannos
  • History
    Yearbook for Traditional Music
  • 1990
Though the Christian Greek orthodox and the Islamic Ottoman cultures were rivals on a political and ideological level throughout the existence of the Ottoman empire, the Greek orthodox population of

Makam: Modal Practice In Turkish Art Music

Nazari ve Ameli Türk Musıkisi (Vol

  • IV). _
  • 1940