Weed management and irrigation are key treatments in emerging black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) cultivation

@article{Olivera2011WeedMA,
  title={Weed management and irrigation are key treatments in emerging black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) cultivation},
  author={Antoni Olivera and Christina Fischer and Jos{\'e} Antonio Bonet and Juan Mart{\'i}nez de Arag{\'o}n and Daniel Oliach and Carlos Colinas},
  journal={New Forests},
  year={2011},
  volume={42},
  pages={227-239}
}
Interest in conversion of marginal agricultural lands to small oak woodlands for the production of black truffles (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.) is increasing in the native black truffle areas of France, Spain and Italy as well as suitable or amended sites throughout the world due to high economic returns for gastronomically valuable truffles. Successful long-term management of a perennial plantation replacing an annual crop requires understanding the system in all phases of the life cycle, and… 

Weed control modifies Tuber melanosporum mycelial expansion in young oak plantations

The effects of double-layer white mulch on herbaceous cover, soil temperature, reflected light, and the expansion of T. melanosporum bring us closer to being able to substitute traditional tilling of truffle orchards for the less expensive mulching treatments.

Economically profitable post fire restoration with black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) producing plantations

Results suggest that reforestation with T. melanosporum-inoculated seedlings can be successful following forest fires and highlights the competitiveness of this fungus within the ECM community in these soils.

White mulch and irrigation increase black truffle soil mycelium when competing with summer truffle in young truffle orchards

The results indicate the potential advantages of using white mulch to support irrigation in truffle plantations located in areas with dry Mediterranean climatic conditions to promote the development of Tuber mycelium.

Glyphosate treatments for weed control affect early stages of root colonization by Tuber melanosporum but not secondary colonization

The results suggest that glyphosate has the potential to jeopardise the role of the soil spore bank as inoculum source for the colonisation of new roots, also raising the question of whether glyphosate could hinder the presumed role of spores in sexual mating.

Shifts in soil fungal communities in Tuber melanosporum plantations over a 20-year transition from agriculture fields to oak woodlands

The observed inverse relationship between the frequency of soil endophytic and/or pathogenic fungi and that of the mycorrhizal mutualist T. melanosporum provides support to continue a deeper analysis of shifts in fungal communities and functional groups where there is a transition from agriculture fields to woodlands.

Insight into the truffle brûlé: tripartite interactions between the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum), holm oak (Quercus ilex) and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants

The role of T. melanosporum in mediating plant-plant interactions, possible mechanisms underlying brûlé formation and a potential successional role for T. pigmentum are highlighted.

References

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An experiment to evaluate 3 levels of irrigation based on monthly water deficit and the effects of currently applied weed control systems and fertilization found that replacing one-half of the water deficit of the driest month (moderate irrigation) promoted the proliferation of T. melanosporum mycorrhizae, while high irrigation reduced fine root production and truffle mycor rhizae.

Can NPK fertilizers enhance seedling growth and mycorrhizal status of Tuber melanosporum-inoculated Quercus ilex seedlings?

The combined effects of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium with different doses of each element, applied to either foliage or roots, on plant growth parameters and the mycorrhizal status of outplanted 3-year-old seedlings in five experimental Quercus ilex–T.

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A glasshouse experiment was conducted to simulate the competition between artificially introduced Tuber melanosporum (Vitt.) and other symbionts, occurring on outplanted truffle-producing trees, and found that Tuber brumale stimulates the development of T. melanospora under these conditions.

Occurrence of Tuber melanosporum in relation to soil surface layer properties and soil differentiation

The occurrence of pianelli — i.e. areas with little herbaceous ground cover created by T. melanosporum — showed a close relationship with host plant height and aeration of soil surface layers, indicating the presence of a well-aerated soil environment, and the height of symbiont trees increased and the content of reduced Mn decreased.

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Glyphosate at 0–54 and 3–23 kg ha−1 did not reduce seedling growth or ectomycorrhizal development under greenhouse conditions and under field conditions, and there was no seedling mortality due to glyphosate treatment at either rate.

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Abstract We tested simulated effects of herb competition on the performance of planted seedlings of Quercus faginea ssp. faginea in Mediterranean abandoned cropland. We produced three types of

Tuber melanosporum, when dominant, affects fungal dynamics in truffle grounds.

The soil fungal populations of inside and outside brulé were compared in order to understand whether the scanty plant cover was related to a change in fungal biodiversity.