Weather on Other Worlds. V. The Three Most Rapidly Rotating Ultra-cool Dwarfs

  title={Weather on Other Worlds. V. The Three Most Rapidly Rotating Ultra-cool Dwarfs},
  author={Megan E. Tannock and Stanimir A. Metchev and Aren N. Heinze and Paulo A. Miles-P'aez and Jonathan Gagn'e and Adam J. Burgasser and Mark. S. Marley and D{\'a}niel Apai and Genaro Su{\'a}rez and Peter P. Plavchan},
  journal={The Astronomical Journal},
We present the discovery of rapid photometric variability in three ultra-cool dwarfs from long-duration monitoring with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The T7, L3.5, and L8 dwarfs have the shortest photometric periods known to date: hr, hr, and hr, respectively. We confirm the rapid rotation through moderate-resolution infrared spectroscopy, which reveals projected rotational velocities between 79 and 104 km s−1. We compare the near-infrared spectra to photospheric models to determine the objects… 
Stable Hydrogen-burning Limits in Rapidly Rotating Very Low Mass Objects
We present novel effects of uniform rapid stellar rotation on the minimum mass of stable hydrogen burning in very low mass stars, using an analytic model and relaxing the assumption of spherical
Top-of-the-atmosphere and Vertical Cloud Structure of a Fast-rotating Late T Dwarf
Only a handful of late T brown dwarfs have been monitored for spectrophotometric variability, leaving incomplete the study of the atmospheric cloud structures of the coldest brown dwarfs, which share
Let the Great World Spin: Revealing the Stormy, Turbulent Nature of Young Giant Exoplanet Analogs with the Spitzer Space Telescope
We present a survey for photometric variability in young, low-mass brown dwarfs with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The 23 objects in our sample show robust signatures of youth and share properties
Detection and Bulk Properties of the HR 8799 Planets with High-resolution Spectroscopy
Using the Keck Planet Imager and Characterizer, we obtained high-resolution (R ∼ 35,000) K-band spectra of the four planets orbiting HR 8799. We clearly detected H2O and CO in the atmospheres of HR
The Perkins INfrared Exosatellite Survey (PINES) I. Survey Overview, Reduction Pipeline, and Early Results
We describe the Perkins INfrared Exosatellite Survey (PINES), a near-infrared photometric search for short-period transiting planets and moons around a sample of 393 spectroscopically confirmed L-
The Sonora Brown Dwarf Atmosphere and Evolution Models. I. Model Description and Application to Cloudless Atmospheres in Rainout Chemical Equilibrium
We present a new generation of substellar atmosphere and evolution models, appropriate for application to studies of L-, T-, and Y-type brown dwarfs and self-luminous extrasolar planets. The models
The Brown Dwarf Kinematics Project (BDKP). V. Radial and Rotational Velocities of T Dwarfs from Keck/NIRSPEC High-resolution Spectroscopy
We report multiepoch radial velocities, rotational velocities, and atmospheric parameters for 37 T-type brown dwarfs observed with Keck/NIRSPEC. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo forward-modeling
Measuring and Replicating the 1–20 μm Energy Distributions of the Coldest Brown Dwarfs: Rotating, Turbulent, and Nonadiabatic Atmospheres
Cold, low-mass, field brown dwarfs are important for constraining the terminus of the stellar mass function, and also for optimizing atmospheric studies of exoplanets. In 2020 new model grids for
Detection of photometric variability in the very low-mass binary VHS J1256-1257AB using TESS and Spitzer
Aims. We investigate the photometric properties of the M7.5 equal-mass binary VHS J1256-1257AB, which, combined with the late-L dwarf VHS J1256-1257 b, forms one of the few young triple systems of


We present results from the Weather on Other Worlds Spitzer Exploration Science program to investigate photometric variability in L and T dwarfs, usually attributed to patchy clouds. We surveyed 44
A search for J-band variability from late-L and T brown dwarfs
We present J-band photometric observations of eight late-L and T type brown dwarfs designed to search for variability. We detect small amplitude periodic variability from three of the objects on
Peering through Jupiter’s clouds with radio spectral imaging
Radio observations probe beneath the clouds of Jupiter's atmosphere and distinguish an equatorial wave, bringing up ammonia gas from Jupiter’s deep atmosphere, as well as observing the predicted radio counterpart of such hot spots.
On the Correlation between L Dwarf Optical and Infrared Variability and Radio Aurorae
Photometric variability attributed to cloud phenomena is common in L/T transition brown dwarfs. Recent studies show that such variability may also trace aurorae, suggesting that localized magnetic
The Structure and Stability of Rotating Gas Masses.
Design of the Gemini near-infrared spectrograph
The Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) supports a variety of observing modes over the 1-5 μm wavelength region, matched to the infrared-optimized performance of the Gemini 8-m telescopes. We
Studies in astronomical time series analysis. II - Statistical aspects of spectral analysis of unevenly spaced data
This paper studies the reliability and efficiency of detection with the most commonly used technique, the periodogram, in the case where the observation times are unevenly spaced to retain the simple statistical behavior of the evenly spaced case.
Improving the photometric precision of IRAC Channel 1
Planning is underway for a possible post-cryogenic mission with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Only Channels 1 and 2 (3.6 and 4.5 μm) of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) will be operational; they will
Magnetospherically driven optical and radio aurorae at the end of the stellar main sequence
Radio and optical spectroscopic observations of an object at the end of the stellar main sequence, located right at the boundary between stars and brown dwarfs, are reported, from which radio and optical auroral emissions both powered by magnetospheric currents are detected.
Route & Wolszczan recently detected five radio bursts from the T6 dwarf WISEP J112254.73+255021.5 and used the timing of these events to propose that this object rotates with an ultra-short period of