Waves and synchrony in Epirrita autumnata/Operophtera brumata outbreaks. II. Sunspot activity cannot explain cyclic outbreaks.

@article{Nilssen2007WavesAS,
  title={Waves and synchrony in Epirrita autumnata/Operophtera brumata outbreaks. II. Sunspot activity cannot explain cyclic outbreaks.},
  author={Arne C. Nilssen and Olle Tenow and Helena Bylund},
  journal={The Journal of animal ecology},
  year={2007},
  volume={76 2},
  pages={
          269-75
        }
}
1. In recent studies, it has been argued that sunspot activity forces the Epirrita autumnata 9-10-year outbreak periodicity in the mountain birch forest of Fennoscandia. For the following reasons, we challenge this conclusion. 2. With a 10-year outbreak cycle of E. autumnata and the 11-year sunspot cycle, it is expected that the cycles will run in-phase, out-of-phase and in-phase within 10 x 11 years. Hence, given such cycle lengths, sunspot activity should not affect outbreak periods. For a… CONTINUE READING
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