Waveguide electro-optic modulator in fused silica fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing and thermal poling.

@article{Li2006WaveguideEM,
  title={Waveguide electro-optic modulator in fused silica fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing and thermal poling.},
  author={Guangyu Li and Kim A. Winick and Ali A. Said and Mark Dugan and Philippe Bado},
  journal={Optics letters},
  year={2006},
  volume={31 6},
  pages={
          739-41
        }
}
An integrated electro-optic waveguide modulator is demonstrated in bulk fused silica. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer waveguide structure is fabricated by direct writing with a femtosecond laser followed by thermal poling. A 20 degrees electro-optic phase shift is achieved at an operating wavelength of 1.55 microm with an applied voltage of 400 V and an interaction length of 25.6 mm, which correspond to an estimated effective electro-optic coefficient of 0.17 pm/V for the TE-polarized mode. 

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