Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts

@article{Horne2005WaveAO,
  title={Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts},
  author={Richard B. Horne and Richard Mansergh Thorne and Yuri Y. Shprits and Nigel P. Meredith and Sarah A. Glauert and Andy J Smith and Shrikanth G. Kanekal and Daniel N. Baker and Mark J. Engebretson and Jennifer L. Posch and Maria Spasojevic and Umran S. Inan and Jolene S. Pickett and Pierrette M. E. D{\'e}cr{\'e}au},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2005},
  volume={437},
  pages={227-230}
}
The Van Allen radiation belts are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth's magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are accelerated to very high energies of several million electron volts. Here we show, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event where the outer… 
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Comparisons between observations and modelling of the evolution of the electron flux and pitch angle show that electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves provide the dominant loss mechanism at ultra-relativistic energies and produce a profound dropout of the ultra- RELATivistic radiation belt fluxes.
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In the Earth's radiation belts the flux of relativistic electrons is highly variable, sometimes changing by orders of magnitude within a few hours. Since energetic electrons can damage satellites it
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