Watermarking sinusoidal audio representations by quantization index modulation in multiple frequencies

@article{Liu2004WatermarkingSA,
  title={Watermarking sinusoidal audio representations by quantization index modulation in multiple frequencies},
  author={Yi-Wen Liu and Julius O. Smith},
  journal={2004 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing},
  year={2004},
  volume={5},
  pages={V-373}
}
The focus of the paper is to hide information in sinusoidal audio representations. Watermarks are embedded by introducing quantization index modulation (QIM) in frequencies of sinusoids. The frequency shifts due to QIM are controlled to be less than one-thirtieth Bark, which requires high accuracy in frequency estimation for watermark decoding. Therefore, the paper presents a hybrid multiple frequency estimator which consists of spectral interpolation followed by iterative square error… CONTINUE READING
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Perceptual audio coding,

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