Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration

  title={Water as an essential nutrient: the physiological basis of hydration},
  author={Eric J{\'e}quier and Florence Constant},
  journal={European Journal of Clinical Nutrition},
How much water we really need depends on water functions and the mechanisms of daily water balance regulation. The aim of this review is to describe the physiology of water balance and consequently to highlight the new recommendations with regard to water requirements. Water has numerous roles in the human body. It acts as a building material; as a solvent, reaction medium and reactant; as a carrier for nutrients and waste products; in thermoregulation; and as a lubricant and shock absorber… 

Appropriate Hydration Can Make a Difference

It is imperative for health to have total body water (TBW) content in appropriate standards as well as appropriate hydration status for health and wellbeing of an individual.

The Role of Water Homeostasis in Muscle Function and Frailty: A Review

Intracellular water content in lean mass has been related to muscle strength, functional capacity, and frailty risk, and has been proposed as an indicator of muscle quality and cell hydration.

[The importance of water consumption in health and disease prevention: the current situation].

Up-to-date information is presented on subjects such as compliance with water consumption recommendations and suggestions for improvement; techniques available to measure hydration status and their clinical applications; effects of hydration/dehydration on physical or cognitive activities and chronic diseases; and existing Spanish regulations on the quality and salubrity of water.

Awareness of amount of intake of drinking water by an individual - A survey

Water is crucial for life, and undeniable water is a calorie-unfastened alternative for hydration, but there are many unanswered questions about this maximum critical thing of the authors' body and weight-reduction plan.

The effects of hydration status on cardiovascular system: a review

The data regarding how much water can reduce the risk of heart disease is limited and the results are also controversial, so more research is needed to confirm the observed associations between hydration status and cardiovascular diseases.

Effects of Drugs and Excipients on Hydration Status

Monitoring the hydration status in patients, mainly in those population segments with a higher risk, to avoid complications and associated pathologies, which are key axes in both pharmaceutical care and the field of nutrition.

Water, Potassium, Sodium, and Chloride in Nutrition

Adequate intake of water helps maintain circulating volume and prevent impairments in cognition and exercise capacity due to dehydration, and adequate intake from dietary sources can reduce blood pressure, bone demineralization, and formation of kidney stones.

Types and Characteristics of Drinking Water for Hydration in the Elderly

The role of hydration in the maintenance of health is increasingly recognized and it is essential to take this into account to understand the diversity of indications and favorable effects on health that certain waters can offer.

Water: neglected, unappreciated and under researched

  • E. Rush
  • Environmental Science
    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
  • 2013
The global perspective of the potable water supply, human rights and water, dietary guidelines and sources of water and the physiology of water balance are overviewed.

Are we being drowned in hydration advice? Thirsty for more?

It is argued that externally advocated hydration policies (especially based on change in body mass with exercise in healthy individuals) have limited merit and are extrapolated and imposed too widely upon society, at the expense of autonomy.



Human water needs.

Day-to-day hydration is generally well maintained so long as food and fluid are readily available, and the individual variability between athletes can be substantial.

The most essential nutrient: defining the adequate intake of water.

These procedures to quantify 24-hour hydration status may prove valuable in investigating the effects on health of different states of euhydration in healthy children with a typical affluent Western-type diet.

Physiological consequences of hypohydration: exercise performance and thermoregulation.

  • M. Sawka
  • Engineering
    Medicine and science in sports and exercise
  • 1992
During exercise in the heat, sweat output often exceeds water intake, which results in a body water deficit or hypohydration, which causes a hypertonic-hypovolemia of the blood and makes it difficult to maintain central venous pressure and thus an adequate cardiac output to simultaneously support metabolism and thermoregulation during exercise-heat stress.

Reduced thirst after water deprivation in healthy elderly men.

There is a deficit in thirst and water intake in healthy elderly men, as compared with younger men, although vasopressin osmoreceptor responsiveness is maintained or even increased, and it is suggested that the well-known deficit in urinary concentrating ability that occurs with age reflects renal causes and not a lack of circulating vasoppressin.

Markers of hydration status.

  • S. Shirreffs
  • Medicine
    The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness
  • 2000
Methods by which whole body hydration status can be determined in humans are described and the urinary measures of colour, specific gravity and osmolality are more sensitive at indicating moderate levels of hypohydration than are blood measurements of hematocrit and serum o smolality and sodium concentration.

The role of cellular hydration in the regulation of cell function.

Cell volume homeostasis does not simply mean volume constancy, but rather the integration of events which allow cell hydration to play its physiological role as a regulator of cell function (for reviews see [1–4]).

Hydration and Physical Performance

  • B. Murray
  • Psychology
    Journal of the American College of Nutrition
  • 2007
It is generalize that when performance is at stake, it is better to be well-hydrated than dehydrated, and this generalization holds true in the occupational, military, and sports settings.

Urinary indices during dehydration, exercise, and rehydration.

Ucol, Uosm, and Usg are valid indices of hydration status, and marked dehydration, exercise, and rehydration had little effect on the validity and sensitivity of these indices.

Accuracy of urine specific gravity and osmolality as indicators of hydration status.

P(osm), Usg, and U (osm) appear sensitive to incremental changes in acute hypertonic dehydration, however, the misclassified outcomes for Usg and U(OSm) raise concerns.

Exercise, Heat, Hydration and the Brain

Recent evidence suggests that the integrity of the blood brain barrier may be compromised by combined heat stress and dehydration, and this may play a role in limiting performance in the heat.