Was the Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood Diagnosis Introduced into DSM-III as a Backdoor Maneuver to Replace Homosexuality? A Historical Note

  title={Was the Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood Diagnosis Introduced into DSM-III as a Backdoor Maneuver to Replace Homosexuality? A Historical Note},
  author={Kenneth J. Zucker and Robert L. Spitzer},
  journal={Journal of Sex \& Marital Therapy},
  pages={31 - 42}
Over the years, the DSM diagnosis of gender identity disorder (and its predecessors gender identity disorder of childhood [GIDC] and transsexualism) has attracted controversy as a mental disorder, for its diagnostic criteria, as a target of therapeutic intervention, and for its relationship to a homosexual sexual orientation. Another point of controversy is the claim that the diagnosis of GIDC was introduced into the DSM-III in 1980 as a kind of “backdoor maneuver” to replace homosexuality… 

Queer diagnoses revisited: The past and future of homosexuality and gender diagnoses in DSM and ICD

  • J. Drescher
  • Psychology, Medicine
    International review of psychiatry
  • 2015
The history of homosexuality and the gender diagnoses in the DSM and in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) as well as what is expected to happen to the homosexuality and gender diagnoses following the current ICD-11 revision process are updated.

Queer Diagnoses: Parallels and Contrasts in the History of Homosexuality, Gender Variance, and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual

Critics of the existing GID diagnoses parallel and contrast with earlier historical events that led APA to remove homosexuality from the DSM in 1973, and the author recommends changes in the DSM-V and some internal and public actions that the American Psychiatric Association should take.

Are Gender Identity Disorders Mental Disorders? Recommendations for Revision of the World Professional Association for Transgender Health's Standards of Care

ABSTRACT Gender identity disorders are included as formal diagnoses in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases. The fact that

On the Proposed Sexual and Gender Identity Diagnoses for DSM-5: History and Controversies

In February, 2010, the American Psychiatric Association unveiled its proposed revisions to the Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders for the fifth edition of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of

How gender dysphoria and incongruence became medical diagnoses – a historical review

  • M. Crocq
  • Psychology
    Dialogues in clinical neuroscience
  • 2021
Abstract This article is a historical review of the medical and psychiatric diagnoses associated with transgender people across epochs. Ancient Greek and Roman writings already mention gender change.

The DSM-5 and the Politics of Diagnosing Transpeople

  • Zowie Davy
  • Psychology
    Archives of sexual behavior
  • 2015
It is suggested that the semantic change from GID to GD marks “inverted” gendered expressions as pathological and, thus, continues to stigmatize transpeople.

The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Gender Identity Disorder in Children

  • K. Zucker
  • Psychology
    Archives of sexual behavior
  • 2010
It is concluded that the persistent desire to be of the other gender should be a necessary symptom for the diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder in children in the DSM-III, DSM- III-R, and DSM-IV.

Making gender identity disorder of childhood: Historical lessons for contemporary debates

Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood (GIDC)—a psychiatric diagnosis given to gendervariant children—has been controversial since its creation. Critics inside and outside of the mental health

Disordering Gender Identity

Abstract The inclusion of Gender Identity Disorder and Transvestic Fetishism in a psychiatric diagnostic nosology is a complex topic that is best understood within the larger context of the history

Chapter 2 – Gender Diagnoses




The diagnostic status of homosexuality in DSM-III: a reformulation of the issues.

  • R. Spitzer
  • Psychology
    The American journal of psychiatry
  • 1981
The author presents the DSM-III controversy and a reformulation of the issues involved in the diagnostic status of homosexuality, arguing that what is at issue is a value judgment about heterosexuality, rather than a factual dispute about homosexuality.

The Validity of the Diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder (Child and Adolescent Criteria)

This article looks at the diagnosis of gender identity disorder (child and adolescent criteria) as used in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). It considers how

Is Gender Identity Disorder in Children a Mental Disorder?

The evaluation indicates that children who experience a sense of inappropriateness in the culturally prescribed gender role of their sex but do not experience discomfort with their biological sex should not be considered to have GID.

Edited correspondence on the status of homosexuality in DSM-III.

The edited correspondence of the participants in this dispute over the status of homosexuality in the revised APA nomenclature of disorders is presented here as a way of revealing the lingering conflict over homosexuality within American psychiatry.

Transsexualism: a review of etiology, diagnosis and treatment.

The Transsexual Experiment

In this, the second volume of a trilogy, Dr Stoller extends the observations reported in vol 1, Sex and Gender and develops his basic hypothesis that "the degree of femininity that develops in a boy and the forms it takes will vary according to exactly (not approximately) what is done to him in earliest childhood".

Transgenderism and Intersexuality in Childhood and Adolescence: Making Choices

Series Editor's Introduction - Alan E. Kazdin Preface Acknowledgments List of Abbreviations 1. Typical Sexual Differentiation General Terminology Sexual Differentiation Development of Gender Identity

The Course of Gay and Lesbian Lives: Social and Psychoanalytic Perspectives

We live in a society obsessed with tracing the cause of homosexuality. Is there a gene that can be identified? Or do the origins lie outside of biology in the cultural context of childhood or

Gender Identity Disorder in Young Boys: A Parent- and Peer-Based Treatment Protocol

Gender identity disorder (GID) as a psychiatric category is currently under debate. Because of the psychosocial consequences of childhood GID and the fact that childhood GID, in most cases, appears

Clinical notes on a case of transvestism in a child

This clinical presentation describes the therapeutic process of a 5‐year‐old male child presenting as a main symptom quasi‐delusional feminine enactments starting at an early age, which persisted for