Warning: Even memory for faces may be contagious

  title={Warning: Even memory for faces may be contagious},
  author={Elizabeth F. Loftus and Edith Greene},
  journal={Law and Human Behavior},
College students (521) participated in this research program designed to study the extent to which memory for faces can be altered. Pilot results indicated that subjects who viewed a face and then heard a description of that face ostensibly written by another witness were influenced by that description. Specifically, subjects adopted the verbal expressions of another witness even when those expressions were in error. Furthermore, subjects who heard a misleading detail had a tendency to… 
Initial Testing Reduces Eyewitness Suggestibility for Faces
Past research has demonstrated that verbally recalling the appearance of a perpetrator after witnessing a crime can hinder one’s ability to identify that perpetrator in a subsequent lineup (verbal
Facial composites and the misinformation effect: How composites distort memory
Purpose This study examined how constructing and viewing facial composites affects memory accuracy. Method Participants (n = 240) viewed a target face for 60 s; half were then randomly assigned
When it comes to faces bad information may not be so bad: The effects of post-event information on line-up identification
This study sought to replicate and extend what little is known about the effect of misleading post-event information (aka the misinformation effect) with regards to facial identification. One-hundred
Retrieval does not always enhance suggestibility: testing can improve witness identification performance.
The effects of verbally recalling a face on people's ability to resist subsequent misinformation about that face are investigated and initial testing reduced eyewitness suggestibility for the face.
The influence of retrieval processes in verbal overshadowing
It is concluded that retrieval-based processes exert a powerful influence over the accuracy of verbalization and subsequent identification of a target face.
The creation of false memories of school-aged children as a consequence of misinformation
Human memory is not as correct and reliable as it might be considered, as it is possible to be manipulated easily. Even a small suggestion could influence the memory, leading to the distortion of
Does exposure to facial composites damage eyewitness memory? A comprehensive review
Eyewitnesses often create face likenesses, which are published in the hope that potential suspects will be reported to the police. Witnesses exposed to another witness's composite, however, may be
Co-witness Information Can Have Immediate Effects on Eyewitness Memory Reports
Results have implications not only for the immediate effects on the accuracy of witnesses' memory reports, but also for the impact that even one such inaccurate report can have on the manner in which a case is investigated by the police or other authorities.
Effects of Post-exposure Description and Imaging on Subsequent Face Recognition Performance
After viewing a crime, witnesses are frequently asked by police investigators to give a verbal description of the perpetrator. At a later time, witnesses may be asked to try to recognize the
Memory for faces: evidence of retrieval-based impairment.
  • P. Windschitl
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 1996
The recovery effects suggest that interpolated Faces affected the retrieval but not the storage of memories for targets, even for participants who were successfully misled about the interpolated faces.


Effect of choosing an incorrect photograph on a later identification by an eyewitness.
Possible biases in police practices of obtaining identifications of suspects from eyewitnesses were investigated in a test of the hypothesis that picking out an incorrect photograph from an array
Memory for Form
An experimental study of the effect of language on the reproduction of visually perceived form.
The experiments reported in this paper are part of a study of the conditions which affect the reproduction of visually perceived form. Previous investigators such as G. E. Muller, F. Wulf, and J. J.
Effects of interpolated mugshot exposure on accuracy of eyewitness identification
Four groups of 15 Ss (ages 20–65 yrs) observed a videotape of 3 men whom they were later asked to identify in a recognition test. Results demonstrate significant effects on confidence ratings of both
Looking at Upside-down Faces
Compared memory for faces with memory for other classes of familar and complex objects which, like faces, are also customarily seen only in 1 orientation (mono-oriented). Performance of 4 students