Warming of the Southern Ocean Since the 1950s

  title={Warming of the Southern Ocean Since the 1950s},
  author={Sarah T. Gille},
  pages={1275 - 1277}
  • S. Gille
  • Published 15 February 2002
  • Environmental Science
  • Science
Autonomous Lagrangian Circulation Explorer floats recorded temperatures in depths between 700 and 1100 meters in the Southern Ocean throughout the 1990s. These temperature records are systematically warmer than earlier hydrographic temperature measurements from the region, suggesting that mid-depth Southern Ocean temperatures have risen 0.17°C between the 1950s and the 1980s. This warming is faster than that of the global ocean and is concentrated within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, where… 

Decadal-Scale Temperature Trends in the Southern Hemisphere Ocean

Long-term trends in the heat content of the Southern Hemisphere ocean are evaluated by comparing temperature profiles collected during the 1990s with profiles collected starting in the 1930s. Data

Observations of change in the Southern Ocean

  • S. Jacobs
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2006
Ocean station and drifting float observations have revealed rising temperatures in the upper 3000 m and Fresher waters with lower oxygen isotope content on the Pacific–Antarctic continental shelf are consistent with increased melting of continental ice.


The accident of geography that creates a circumpolar channel of ocean at the latitude of Drake Passage has a profound impact on global ocean circulation patterns and climate. The strong eastward flow

Observations: Oceanic Climate Change and Sea Level

The oceans are warming. Over the period 1961 to 2003, global ocean temperature has risen by 0.10°C from the surface to a depth of 700 m. Consistent with the Third Assessment Report (TAR), global

Recent western South Atlantic bottom water warming

Potential temperature differences are computed from hydrographic sections transiting the western basins of the South Atlantic Ocean from 60°S to the equator in 2005/2003 and 1989/1995. While warming

Parallel decadal variability of inferred water temperatures for Northern and Southern Hemisphere intermediate water masses

We use a novel proxy (growth rates of long‐lived deep water fish, orange roughy) to reconstruct inferred water temperatures of intermediate water masses in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres

The Southern Hemisphere Westerlies in a Warming World: Propping Open the Door to the Deep Ocean

Abstract A coupled climate model with poleward-intensified westerly winds simulates significantly higher storage of heat and anthropogenic carbon dioxide by the Southern Ocean in the future when

Remotely induced warming of Antarctic Bottom Water in the eastern Weddell gyre

[1] Four repeat hydrographic sections across the eastern Weddell gyre at 30°E reveal a warming (by ~0.1°C) and lightening (by ~0.02–0.03 kg m−3) of the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) entering the gyre

North-south Shift of Oceanic Fronts in the Southern Ocean : Linkage between Migration of Sea Ice Coverage, Antarctic Polar Front, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and Global Climate Change from the Present to Late Quaternary

The Southern Ocean plays an important role in the global climate system both at present and in the geologic past. To resolve the causes and processes of atmospheric CO2 change, it is important to

Rapid freshening of Antarctic Bottom Water formed in the Indian and Pacific oceans

Repeat hydrographic sections occupied in 1995 and 2005 reveal a rapid decline in the salinity and density of Antarctic Bottom Water throughout the Australian Antarctic Basin. The basin‐wide shift of



Freshwater and Heat Changes in the North and South Pacific Oceans between the 1960s and 1985–94

Comparisons of hydrographic conditions in the North and South Pacific Oceans in the 1960s and 1985‐94 have been made along five World Ocean Circulation Experiment sections. Below the seasonal mixed

Warming of the World Ocean

We quantify the interannual-to-decadal variability of the heat content (mean temperature) of the world ocean from the surface through 3000-meter depth for the period 1948 to 1998. The heat content of

Interpentadal variability of temperature and salinity at intermediate depths of the North-Atlantic O

We have composited historical hydrographic observations for the world ocean for two pentads, 1955–1959 and 1970–1974, and have objectively analyzed these data for the purpose of studying the temporal

Detection of temperature and sea-ice-extent changes in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean, 1949-96

Surface temperature data for the occupied Antarctic stations (for the period 1959-96) and Southern Ocean island stations (1949-96), and sea-ice-extent data (1973-96) are analyzed to provide trends

Mid-depth recirculation observed in the interior Labrador and Irminger seas by direct velocity measurements

Detailed observations of the velocity structure with a high data coverage suggest that the picture of the formation and spreading of Labrador Sea water may have to be revised, and future studies with similar instrumentation will allow new insights on the intermediate depth ocean circulation.

Comparison of Autonomous Lagrangian Circulation Explorer and fine resolution Antarctic model results in the

The motions of eight Autonomous Lagrangian Circulation Explorer (ALACE) floats released near 750 m depth in Drake Passage and followed through the South Atlantic are described and compared with

Diagnosing Climate Change and Ocean Ventilation using Hydrographic Data

Abstract Changes in atmospheric forcing can affect the subsurface water column of the ocean by three different mechanisms. First, warmed mixed-layer water that is subducted into the ocean interior

Detection of Anthropogenic Climate Change in the World's Oceans

Application of optimal detection methodology shows that the model-produced signals are indistinguishable from the observations at the 0.05 confidence level, which suggests that the observed ocean heat-content changes are consistent with those expected from anthropogenic forcing, which broadens the basis for claims that an anthropogenic signal has been detected in the global climate system.

The NCEP–NCAR 50-Year Reanalysis: Monthly Means CD-ROM and Documentation

Editor's note: This article is accompanied by a CD-ROM that contains the complete documentation of the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis and all of the data analyses and forecasts. It is provided to members