Warlords, Bullies, and State Building in Nationalist China

@article{Fitzgerald1997WarlordsBA,
  title={Warlords, Bullies, and State Building in Nationalist China},
  author={John Fitzgerald},
  journal={Modern China},
  year={1997},
  volume={23},
  pages={420 - 458}
}
were penetrated and subverted by local elites (Eastman, 1974: 21213). The experience of community-based cooperatives seems to have been little better. In Henan, Hebei, and Shandong, a number of community-minded pioneers launched cooperatives along with a range of other experiments in popular education and village selfgovernment. Peng Yuting in Zhenping county, the Mi lineage in Ding county, and Liang Shuming in Zouping experimented with local models of village education and rural development in… 
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