Warlords, Bullies, and State Building in Nationalist China

  title={Warlords, Bullies, and State Building in Nationalist China},
  author={John Fitzgerald},
  journal={Modern China},
  pages={420 - 458}
were penetrated and subverted by local elites (Eastman, 1974: 21213). The experience of community-based cooperatives seems to have been little better. In Henan, Hebei, and Shandong, a number of community-minded pioneers launched cooperatives along with a range of other experiments in popular education and village selfgovernment. Peng Yuting in Zhenping county, the Mi lineage in Ding county, and Liang Shuming in Zouping experimented with local models of village education and rural development in… 
5 Citations

The Communist resistance movement in war-torn Guangdong, China, 1937-1945.

This doctoral dissertation traces the origins of the East River and the Hainan Base Areas, which were established by the Chinese Communist Party in Guangdong during the Anti-Japanese War (1937-45)

Building and Funding a Warlord Regime

Warlordism persisted, though appearing in a new form, after Jiang Jieshi completed the Northern Expedition against warlords in 1928. A contemporary political commentator ascribed this phenomenon to

The Impact of Landlord Classes on Economic Improvement and Political Stability of China, Korea, and the Philippines: A Comparative Study

As an indispensable part of Feudalism, the landlord classes contributed significantly to the local dominance of the central authority; however, with the collapse of feudal regimes, the landlord

Far from the Treaty Ports

This article explores how constructions of national identity took the Chinese discourse on industrialization in the 1930s beyond mere economics. During this period, Chinese intellectuals’ attempt to

Cold War Sewing Machines: Production and Consumption in 1950s China and Japan

With the “consumption turn” in the humanities and the social sciences, a phenomenon evident in English-language scholarship from the 1980s onward, production ceased to command the attention it had



Blood Road: The Mystery of Shen Dingyi in Revolutionary China

Blood Road is a complex mix of social history, literary analysis, political biography, and murder mystery. It explores and analyzes the social and cultural dynamics of the Chinese revolution of the

The Military-Gentry Coalition: China Under the Warlords.

As a result of the combination of a restricted sample of literature for derivation of "operational codes" and an ignorance of the role of media reports in Chinese decision making, the authors'

Social Organization in South China, 1911-1949: The Case of Kuan Lineage in K'ai-p'ing County

offers some sound advice to both parties on how to narrow these gaps (chap. 6). The last chapter (7) supplements the foregoing discussion with sectoral and company case studies based on the author's

Warlords against Warlordism: The Politics of Anti-Militarism in Early Twentieth-Century China

In a recent article published in the Journal of Military History, Arthur Waldron noted that war in Chinese history has been ‘treated at best as a largely unexamined context’. One has only to look at

Increased Disunity: The Politics and Finance of Guangdong Separatism, 1926–1936

There are two lemons in the larder of Modern China's history. Stalin's, dating from April 1927, is certainly the better known: Chiang Kaishek is submitting to discipline. The Kuomintang is a bloc, a

The Kwangsi way in Kuomintang China, 1931-1939

This work offers a detailed study of Kwangsi, the "model province" of Nationalist China, as it prepared for war with Japan in the 1930s. The author examines the theoretical and pragmatic origins of

Public Finance and the Rise of Warlordism

Previous studies of the rise of warlordism have focused on the devolution of power after the Taiping Rebellion and the failure of political leaders to create a workable order after the 1911

Counterrevolution in China: The Nationalists in Jiangxi during the Soviet Period

Analyzes the failure of the Nationalists to respond effectively to the internal Communist challenge.

States and Economic Development: A Comparative Historical Analysis

List of Figures. List of Tables. Preface. 1. Introduction. Part I:. 2. The Rise of Europe I: State Formation and its Legacies, 800--1800. 3. The Rise of Europe II: State--Making and

Philosophy and politics in China : the controversy over dialectical materialism in the 1930s

Soviet philosophy to the 1930s the struggle over the Second United Front the controversy over dialectical materialism "on practice" and "on contradiction".