We evaluated the predictive value of wandering behavior at baseline for nutritional status, disability, institutionalization, and mortality in 686 Alzheimer disease community-dwelling subjects enrolled in the prospective REAL.FR study, France. Wandering behavior was defined using the Neuro-Psychiatric Inventory. The Mini-Nutritional Assessment and Katz Activity of Daily Living (ADL) scale were administered every 6 months during the 2 years of the study. Dementia severity was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Behavioral disturbances, comorbidities, medication, health care support, and burden status of the caregiver were assessed at the baseline visit. Outcomes of the 83 (12.2%) wanderers were compared with those of the nonwanderers. In the whole sample 30.1%/year subjects lost weight, 27.8%/year worsened their nutritional status, 55.1%/year decreased their ADL score, 11%/year reduced their ability to walk, 13.5%/year were institutionalized, and 6.2%/year died. Wanderers differed from nonwanderers by a higher frequency of decline of the ADL score (P<0.001), and institutionalization (P<0.001). Adjusted for baseline characteristics, risk of worsening the nutritional status, weight loss, decreased ADL score, and death were not statistically different between wanderers and nonwanderers. Risk for undernutrition and death are not increased in wanderers. Their higher risk of ADL disabilities and institutionalization are partly explained by their baseline characteristics.