Walking, running and the evolution of short toes in humans

@article{Rolian2009WalkingRA,
  title={Walking, running and the evolution of short toes in humans},
  author={Campbell Rolian and Daniel E. Lieberman and Joseph Hamill and John W. Scott and William Werbel},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Biology},
  year={2009},
  volume={212},
  pages={713 - 721}
}
SUMMARY The phalangeal portion of the forefoot is extremely short relative to body mass in humans. This derived pedal proportion is thought to have evolved in the context of committed bipedalism, but the benefits of shorter toes for walking and/or running have not been tested previously. Here, we propose a biomechanical model of toe function in bipedal locomotion that suggests that shorter pedal phalanges improve locomotor performance by decreasing digital flexor force production and mechanical… 

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