WHIRLING DISEASE OF SALMONID FISH: LIFE CYCLE, BIOLOGY, AND DISEASE

@inproceedings{Gilbert2003WHIRLINGDO,
  title={WHIRLING DISEASE OF SALMONID FISH: LIFE CYCLE, BIOLOGY, AND DISEASE},
  author={Michael A. Gilbert and Willard O. Granath},
  booktitle={The Journal of parasitology},
  year={2003}
}
Myxobolus cerebralis is the myxozoan parasite responsible for causing whirling disease in salmonid fish. Although the parasite was first described nearly 100 yr ago, it received relatively little attention until the discovery of its 2-host life cycle in the mid 1980s. This was the first, complete, myxozoan life cycle to be described, and it was greeted with some skepticism because it united 2 stages of M. cerebralis that were previously classified in 2 separate taxa. In the last decade, there… 
EPIZOOTIOLOGY OF MYXOBOLUS CEREBRALIS, THE CAUSATIVE AGENT OF SALMONID WHIRLING DISEASE IN THE ROCK CREEK DRAINAGE OF WEST-CENTRAL MONTANA
TLDR
There was no strict correlation between habitat condition and the occurrence of the parasite; fish became heavily infected in optimal and marginal habitats; fish exposed at a locality that had the lowest habitat ranking consistently had the highest intensity of infection.
Effects of Habitat Alteration on the Epizootiology of Myxobolus cerebralis, the Causative Agent of Salmonid Whirling Disease
  • W. Granath
  • Environmental Science
    The Journal of parasitology
  • 2014
TLDR
It appears that habitat rehabilitation can reduce the transmission of M. cerebralis in trout downstream where they inhabit a healthy environment with no M. cortexis-infected T. tubifex.
Potential for dissemination of the nonnative salmonid parasite Myxobolus cerebralis in Alaska.
TLDR
This study qualitatively assesses the risk of further spread and establishment of M. cerebralis in Alaska and examines four potential routes of dissemination: human movement of fish, natural dispersal by salmonid predators and straying salmon, recreational activities, and commercial seafood processing.
Interactions among oligochaetes and a myxozoan parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis
TLDR
The threshold myxospore dose needed to achieve complete infection within Tubifex tubifex was determined and the influence that interactions among oligoch aetes and M. cerebralis had on oligochaete fitness and the success of M. hoffmeisteri was examined.
Potential Dispersal of the Non-Native Parasite Myxobolus cerebralis in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon: A Qualitative Analysis of Risk
TLDR
The probability of introduction of the myxobolus cerebralis parasite to vary throughout the Willamette River basin is found to vary, and areas with greater probability have been identified as the Clackamas and Santiam River subbasins.
Comparative susceptibility of Deschutes River, Oregon, Tubifex tubifex populations to Myxobolus cerebralis.
TLDR
The results suggest that M. cerebralis could become established above the dams if infected fish are allowed passage into the upper DR system, but not all areas of the DR basin can be classified as having the same likelihood for parasite establishment, and the potential impact will be location dependent.
Avian Piscivores as Vectors for Myxobolus cerebralis in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
TLDR
Fecal material produced during 10-d periods before and after feeding was collected to determine whether M. cerebralis could be detected and, if so, whether it remained viable after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of these birds.
DIFFERENTIAL PROPAGATION OF THE METAZOAN PARASITE MYXOBOLUS CEREBRALIS BY LIMNODRILUS HOFFMEISTERI, ILYODRILUS TEMPLETONI, AND GENETICALLY DISTINCT STRAINS OF TUBIFEX TUBIFEX
TLDR
Genetic analyses revealed relationships that were in agreement with the level of parasite production and ecological or genetic variation within oligochaete host populations may be responsible for substantial differences in whirling disease severity in different areas of North America.
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TLDR
Improving understanding of the hosts, the parasite and the environmental factors determining their interaction should provide for more focused and effective control methods for containing the spread and devastating effects whirling disease is causing to wild trout populations.
Myxobolus cerebralis, a Worldwide Cause of Salmonid Whirling Disease
Abstract Salmonid whirling disease was discovered in Europe in 1893 and has since been spread around the world with shipments of cultured and wild fish. The causative agent is the protozoan parasite
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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Myxosoma cerebralis (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) Etiologic Agent of Salmonid Whirling Disease Requires Tubificid Worm (Annelida: Oligochaeta) in its Life Cycle
Studies of the life cycle of Myxosoma cerebralis showed that development of infectivity did not occur endogenously but that the spore “aging” process required participation of an aquatic tubificid
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