author={Edward J. Zipser and Daniel J. Cecil and Chuntao Liu and Stephen W. Nesbitt and David P. Yorty},
  journal={Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
The instruments on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite have been observing storms as well as rainfall since December 1997. This paper shows the results of a systematic search through seven full years of the TRMM database to find indicators of uncommonly intense storms. These include strong (> 40 dBZ) radar echoes extending to great heights, high lightning flash rates, and very low brightness temperatures at 37 and 85 GHz. These are used as proxy variables, indicating… 
Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures as Proxies for Hailstorms
Abstract The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has been used to infer distributions of intense thunderstorms. Besides the lightning measurements from TRMM, the radar reflectivities
Where Are the Lightning Hotspots on Earth
AbstractPrevious total lightning climatology studies using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) observations were reported at coarse resolution (0.5°) and
Relationships between lightning flash rates and radar reflectivity vertical structures in thunderstorms over the tropics and subtropics
[1] Relationships between the vertical profile of radar reflectivity and lightning flash rates are investigated using 13 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations during
Do the Tallest Convective Cells over the Tropical Ocean Have Slow Updrafts
Far from continents, a few storms lift precipitation-size ice particles into the stratosphere, 17 to 18 km above the tropical ocean. This study is the first to examine the observed properties of a
The variable nature of convection in the tropics and subtropics: A legacy of 16 years of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite
The multiyear data set shows convection varying not only in amount but also in its very nature across the oceans, continents, islands, and mountain ranges of the tropics and subtropics.
Severe convection and lightning in subtropical South America
Satellite radar and radiometer data show that subtropical South America has the world's deepest convective storms, robust mesoscale convective systems, and very frequent large hail. We determine
Lightning Measurements from Satellites and Significance for Storms in the Mediterranean
In this chapter we demonstrate how lightning can be measured from space, and how thunderstorm clouds can be identified and characterized by using combinations of satellite data. This is done over the
TRMM LIS Climatology of Thunderstorm Occurrence and Conditional Lightning Flash Rates
AbstractThe Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has previously been used to build climatologies of mean lightning flash rate across the global
Relating Passive 37-GHz Scattering to Radar Profiles in Strong Convection
Abstract Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager and precipitation radar measurements are examined for strong convective systems. Storms having similar values of minimum 37-GHz
Extreme summer convection in South America.
Abstract Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis data are


Radar, Passive Microwave, and Lightning Characteristics of Precipitating Systems in the Tropics
Abstract The bulk radar reflectivity structures, 85- and 37-GHz brightness temperatures, and lightning characteristics of precipitating systems in tropical Africa, South America, the east Pacific,
A Census of Precipitation Features in the Tropics Using TRMM: Radar, Ice Scattering, and Lightning Observations
An algorithm has been developed to identify precipitation features ($75 km2 in size) in two land and two ocean regions during August, September, and October 1998. It uses data from two instruments on
The Diurnal Cycle of Rainfall and Convective Intensity according to Three Years of TRMM Measurements
Abstract The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite measurements from the precipitation radar and TRMM microwave imager have been combined to yield a comprehensive 3-yr database of
Three Years of TRMM Precipitation Features. Part I: Radar, Radiometric, and Lightning Characteristics
Abstract During its first three years, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite observed nearly six million precipitation features. The population of precipitation features is sorted
Deep Cumulonimbus Cloud Systems in the Tropics with and without Lightning
Abstract The thunderstorm frequency over the oceans during the Global Atmospheric Research Program Atlantic Tropical Experiment is quantified by examination of over 20 000 surface hourly observations
The status of the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) after two years in orbit
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was launched on 27 November 1997, and data from all the instruments first became available approximately 30 days after the launch. Since then,
Comparison of High-Altitude Remote Aircraft Measurements with the Radar Structure of an Oklahoma Thunderstorm: Implications for Precipitation Estimation from Space
Abstract Observations of an isolated group of Oklahoma thunderstorms from NASA's high altitude ER-2 aircraft are presented. These observations include passive radiometric measurements at frequencies
Regional Variability in Tropical Convection: Observations from TRMM
Abstract Observation of the vertical profile of precipitation over the global Tropics is a key objective of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) because this information is central to
Measuring the Global Distribution of Intense Convection over Land with Passive Microwave Radiometry
Abstract The global distribution of intense convective activity over land is shown to be measurable with satellite passive-microwave methods through a comparison of an empirical rain rate algorithm
Stratiform Rain in the Tropics as Seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar
Abstract Across the Tropics (20°N–20°S), the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) indicates that for reflectivities ≥17 dBZ, stratiform precipitation accounts for 73%