author={Edward J. Zipser and Daniel J. Cecil and Chuntao Liu and Stephen W. Nesbitt and David P. Yorty},
  journal={Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society},
The instruments on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite have been observing storms as well as rainfall since December 1997. This paper shows the results of a systematic search through seven full years of the TRMM database to find indicators of uncommonly intense storms. These include strong (> 40 dBZ) radar echoes extending to great heights, high lightning flash rates, and very low brightness temperatures at 37 and 85 GHz. These are used as proxy variables, indicating… 

Passive Microwave Brightness Temperatures as Proxies for Hailstorms

Abstract The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has been used to infer distributions of intense thunderstorms. Besides the lightning measurements from TRMM, the radar reflectivities

Where Are the Lightning Hotspots on Earth

AbstractPrevious total lightning climatology studies using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) observations were reported at coarse resolution (0.5°) and

Relationships between lightning flash rates and radar reflectivity vertical structures in thunderstorms over the tropics and subtropics

[1] Relationships between the vertical profile of radar reflectivity and lightning flash rates are investigated using 13 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations during

Do the Tallest Convective Cells over the Tropical Ocean Have Slow Updrafts

Far from continents, a few storms lift precipitation-size ice particles into the stratosphere, 17 to 18 km above the tropical ocean. This study is the first to examine the observed properties of a

Progress from TRMM to GPM

  • Kenji Nakamura
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan. Ser. II
  • 2021
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was launched in 1997, and the observations continued for more than 17 years. The features of TRMM observation were as follows: (a) it followed

The variable nature of convection in the tropics and subtropics: A legacy of 16 years of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite

The multiyear data set shows convection varying not only in amount but also in its very nature across the oceans, continents, islands, and mountain ranges of the tropics and subtropics.

Severe convection and lightning in subtropical South America

Satellite radar and radiometer data show that subtropical South America has the world's deepest convective storms, robust mesoscale convective systems, and very frequent large hail. We determine

Lightning Measurements from Satellites and Significance for Storms in the Mediterranean

In this chapter we demonstrate how lightning can be measured from space, and how thunderstorm clouds can be identified and characterized by using combinations of satellite data. This is done over the

TRMM LIS Climatology of Thunderstorm Occurrence and Conditional Lightning Flash Rates

AbstractThe Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite has previously been used to build climatologies of mean lightning flash rate across the global

Relating Passive 37-GHz Scattering to Radar Profiles in Strong Convection

Abstract Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager and precipitation radar measurements are examined for strong convective systems. Storms having similar values of minimum 37-GHz



A Census of Precipitation Features in the Tropics Using TRMM: Radar, Ice Scattering, and Lightning Observations

An algorithm has been developed to identify precipitation features ($75 km2 in size) in two land and two ocean regions during August, September, and October 1998. It uses data from two instruments on

The Diurnal Cycle of Rainfall and Convective Intensity according to Three Years of TRMM Measurements

Abstract The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite measurements from the precipitation radar and TRMM microwave imager have been combined to yield a comprehensive 3-yr database of

Three Years of TRMM Precipitation Features. Part I: Radar, Radiometric, and Lightning Characteristics

Abstract During its first three years, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite observed nearly six million precipitation features. The population of precipitation features is sorted

Deep Cumulonimbus Cloud Systems in the Tropics with and without Lightning

Abstract The thunderstorm frequency over the oceans during the Global Atmospheric Research Program Atlantic Tropical Experiment is quantified by examination of over 20 000 surface hourly observations

The status of the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) after two years in orbit

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was launched on 27 November 1997, and data from all the instruments first became available approximately 30 days after the launch. Since then,

Comparison of High-Altitude Remote Aircraft Measurements with the Radar Structure of an Oklahoma Thunderstorm: Implications for Precipitation Estimation from Space

Abstract Observations of an isolated group of Oklahoma thunderstorms from NASA's high altitude ER-2 aircraft are presented. These observations include passive radiometric measurements at frequencies

Regional Variability in Tropical Convection: Observations from TRMM

Abstract Observation of the vertical profile of precipitation over the global Tropics is a key objective of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) because this information is central to

Measuring the Global Distribution of Intense Convection over Land with Passive Microwave Radiometry

Abstract The global distribution of intense convective activity over land is shown to be measurable with satellite passive-microwave methods through a comparison of an empirical rain rate algorithm

Stratiform Rain in the Tropics as Seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar

Abstract Across the Tropics (20°N–20°S), the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) indicates that for reflectivities ≥17 dBZ, stratiform precipitation accounts for 73%

Aircraft overflight measurements of Midwest severe storms : implications on geosynchronous satellite interpretations

Abstract The instrumented NASA ER-2 aircraft overflew severe convection with infrared (IR) V features for the first time in the Midwest United States during May 1984. Measurements taken by the ER-2