author={Jonathan Gumz},
  journal={The Historical Journal},
  pages={1015 - 1038}
  • Jonathan Gumz
  • Published 1 November 2001
  • History
  • The Historical Journal
During the Second World War, the Independent State of Croatia was the scene of intense guerrilla warfare as well as a programme of ethnic cleansing undertaken primarily, though not exclusively, by the Croatian state under the control of the Ustaša fascist party. This article investigates the Wehrmacht’s contrasting perceptions of its own violence in the anti-partisan war and its views of the Ustaša’s assault on Croatia’s Serb minority. The author argues that these different views emanated from… 
Understanding Ustaša violence
  • A. Korb
  • Political Science
    Journal of genocide research
  • 2010
The Independent State of Croatia (1941–1945) was a multi-ethnic entity in which a range of political and military powers cooperated with and fought against one another. No less complicated were the
War in a Twilight World : Partisan and Anti-Partisan Warfare in Eastern Europe, 1939-45
Across German-occupied Europe during World War Two, it was the population of eastern Europe which suffered most. A far-reaching effect was the emergence of widespread, ferocious partisan warfare, the
A Tangled Tale: The Survival of Serbian Jews during World War II
Holocaust survival stories continue to amaze and move us. Whether recounted in the media through memoirs and films or first-hand by survivors or their relatives, they share common characteristics but
The Dark Side of Transnational Mobility: Croatian Travel Writers in Hitler’s New Europe
  • R. Yeomans
  • History
    East European Politics and Societies: and Cultures
  • 2021
This article analyses the use of Europeanizing discourses in the travel writing of Croat visitors to the Third Reich. Situating these visits in the context of transnational exchanges in Hitler’s new
Expellees Tell Tales: Partisan Blood Drinkers and the Cultural History of Violence after World War II
This article examines stories told after 1945 by ethnic German refugees from the Banat region of Yugoslavia about encounters they had with Partisans—fighters in Josip Broz Tito’s army—who had become
The aim of this chapter is threefold. First, I argue that the study of civil wars must incorporate a solid theoretical understanding of warfare; second, I introduce a distinction between three
Lands of Unkultur: Mass violence, corpses, and the Nazi imagination of the East
On 1 June 1943 Herr Lange, a political advisor in the civilian administration of Generalkommissariat Weissruthenia, delivered a report regarding a recent Bandenaktion, or anti-partisan operation, to
German Counter-Insurgency Revisited
In recent years, some of the most enduring interpretations of World War II have been subject to revision. Indeed, military historians are using innovative and often inter-disciplinary methods to
“The Last Bullet for the Last Serb”:1 The Ustaša Genocide against Serbs: 1941–19452
  • M. Levy
  • Political Science, Art
    Nationalities Papers
  • 2009
While participating in Hitler's Holocaust against Jews and Roma, wartime Croatia's collaborationist government, the Ustaša (Insurgent), conducted its own genocide against the Serbs within its
Atrocities in Theory and Practice: An Introduction
Classical counterinsurgency theory – written before the 19th century – has generally strongly opposed atrocities, as have theoreticians writing on how to conduct insurgencies. For a variety of


. T-\\. For other examples, see th division, Operations Staff
  • Activity report for September 
Enemy intelligence report for the period from  to  June 
    Enemy intelligence report nr six
    •  Oct. , T-\\
    Concrete examples of the extreme violence involved in typical Ustas\ a expeditions against Serbs can be found in Vladimir Dedijer
    • , trans. unknown (New York, ), pp. -, and Milovan Djilas
    Enemy intelligence report for the period from  to  April 
      Letter from Glaise to the German minister in Zagreb
      • Siegfried Kasche,  Oct. , T-\\