Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is a multifactorial disease following two separate and independent pathways.

@article{Avoort2006VulvarSC,
  title={Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is a multifactorial disease following two separate and independent pathways.},
  author={Irene A M van der Avoort and Hebste Shirango and Brigiet M Hoevenaars and Johanna M. M. Grefte and Joanne A de Hullu and Peter Christianus Martinus de Wilde and Johan Bulten and Willem J G Melchers and Leon F A G Massuger},
  journal={International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists},
  year={2006},
  volume={25 1},
  pages={22-9}
}
Two separate pathways leading to vulvar carcinoma have been suggested. First, a human papillomavirus (HPV)-dependent pathway, in which premalignant stages of vulvar cancer are the classic vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) lesions. Second, an HPV-independent pathway, associated with differentiated VIN III lesions and/or lichen sclerosus. To obtain insight into the mechanisms underlying these pathways, we determined the relationship between HPV DNA and the expression of p14(ARF) and p16… CONTINUE READING