Vulnerability and competence: a review of research on resilience in childhood.

@article{Luthar1991VulnerabilityAC,
  title={Vulnerability and competence: a review of research on resilience in childhood.},
  author={Suniya S Luthar and Edward Zigler},
  journal={The American journal of orthopsychiatry},
  year={1991},
  volume={61 1},
  pages={6-22}
}
The developmental psychopathology literature addressing issues of children's resilience and vulnerability in dealing with life stresses is reviewed. The contribution and methodological limitations of research on stress and competence are examined, theoretical concepts of resilience are discussed, and findings with respect to protective mechanisms, as well as data from longitudinal studies, are presented. Directions for further research are outlined.