Voting by proxy

  title={Voting by proxy},
  author={Dan Alger},
  journal={Public Choice},
  • D. Alger
  • Published 2006
  • Economics
  • Public Choice
I introduce voting by proxy for constructing and operating legislatures, and then compare it to direct representation, plurality, and single transferable vote (STV), which voting by proxy most closely resembles. When each voter uses voting by proxy to select his proxy among given legislators and elections are costless, voting by proxy maximizes the legislature's representation of the voting population. When each voter uses preferential voting by proxy, selecting a proxy during the vote count as… 
Proxy selection in transitive proxy voting
This paper proposes a new social choice-theoretic model of liquid democracy, which is distinguished by taking a richer formal perspective on the process by which a voter chooses a proxy, and explores the topic of manipulation in transitive proxy votes.
Proxy Voting for Better Outcomes
Considering social choice problems on metric spaces, voting with and without the use of proxies is compared to see which mechanism better approximates the optimal outcome, and the regimes in which proxy voting is beneficial are characterized.
Direct voting and proxy voting
An axiomatic argument for a hybrid of direct democracy and representative democracy in which each citizen may vote directly on each issue, or delegate his vote on any issue to a representative (that is, a proxy) of his own choosing is constructed.
Incorporating Preference Information into Formal Models of Transitive Proxy Voting
This thesis is concerned with giving a computational social choice-theoretic model of transitive proxy voting. Transitive proxy voting (or ‘liquid democracy’) is a novel form of collective decision
Approval Voting & Majority Judgement in Weighted Representative Democracy
It is shown that if the size of the electorate is very large, then with very high probability, the decisions made by the legislature will be the same as the decisions that would have been reached by a direct democracy, as decided by the corresponding simple (unweighted) voting rules.
Weighted Representative Democracy
We propose a new system of democratic representation. Any voter can choose any legislator as her representative; thus, different legislators can represent different numbers of voters. Decisions in
Liquid Democracy: An Algorithmic Perspective
It is shown that local delegation mechanisms, which only take the local neighborhood of each voter as input (and, arguably, capture the spirit of liquid democracy), cannot provide the foregoing guarantee, and design a non-local delegation mechanism that does provably outperform direct voting under mild assumptions about voters.
Political Representation in Liquid Democracy
This article provides an in-depth survey of political representation in Liquid Democracy (LD). More precisely, it refutes two potential criticisms: 1) LD impoverishes the concept of political
A Liquid Perspective on Democratic Choice
The goal of this paper is to disentangle and further develop some of the many concepts and goals that liquid democracy ideas often embody, to explore their justification with respect to existing democratic traditions such as transferable voting and political parties, and to explore potential risks in liquid democracy systems and ways to address them.


Fully Proportional Representation
A new concept of proportional representation that takes account of voters' preferences over the full list of alternatives—fully proportional representation (FPR)—and schemes for its implementation are presented.
An Introduction to Vote-Counting Schemes
This paper moves away from theoretical discussions: the authors illustrate and motivate a variety of alternatives to plurality rule, and demonstrate by example how they work and where they fail.
Monotonicity in Electoral Systems
Much of the literature concerning the relative merits of alternative electoral rules is centered around the extent to which particular rules select "representative" legislatures. And an important
The Single Transferable Vote
The single transferable vote (STV) is a family of vote-counting procedures that use voters' rankings of candidates as input and achieve proportional representation. This paper compares STV with other
Fair Representation: Meeting the Ideal of One Man
A theory of fair representation is developed that concludes that the current apportionment formula cheats the larger states in favor of the smaller, contrary to the intentions of the founding fathers and compromising the Supreme Court's ""one man, one vote"" rulings.
Contemporary Democracies: Participation, Stability, and Violence
1. Introduction--Democracy, Parties, and Performance The Contemporary Democracies Political Parties and the Democratic Order Standards of Political Performance 2. Political Performance--The Initial
The theory of committees and elections
I The Theory of Committees and Elections.- I. A Committee and Motions.- II. Independent Valuation.- III. Can a Motion be Represented by the same Symbol on Different Schedules?.- IV. A Committee using
Mathematical Structure of Voting Paradoxes: I. Pairwise Votes
A theory is developed to identify, characterize, and explain all possible positional and pairwise voting outcomes that can occur for any number of alternatives and any profile. This paper describes
Representative Deliberations and Representative Decisions: Proportional Representation and the Borda Rule
The development of social choice theory over the past three decades has brought many new insights into democratic theory. Surprisingly, the theory of representation has gone almost untouched by
Mathematical structure of voting paradoxes
P pairwise voting is described where new results include explanations for all paradoxes, cycles, conflict between Borda and Condorcet rankings, differences among procedures using pairwise votes, and discrepancies among the societal rankings as candidates are dropped or added.