Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophora, Peritrichia) is a grade not a clade: redefinition of Vorticella and the families Vorticellidae and Astylozoidae using molecular characters derived from the gene coding for small subunit ribosomal RNA.

@article{Sun2012VorticellaL1,
  title={Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophora, Peritrichia) is a grade not a clade: redefinition of Vorticella and the families Vorticellidae and Astylozoidae using molecular characters derived from the gene coding for small subunit ribosomal RNA.},
  author={P. Sun and J. Clamp and Dapeng Xu and Y. Kusuoka and W. Miao},
  journal={Protist},
  year={2012},
  volume={163 1},
  pages={
          129-42
        }
}
Recent phylogenetic analyses of the peritrich genus Vorticella have suggested that it might be paraphyletic, with one Vorticella species - Vorticella microstoma grouping with the swimming peritrichs Astylozoon and Opisthonecta in a distant clade. These results were based on very limited taxon sampling and thus could not be accepted as conclusive evidence for revising the generic classification. We tested paraphyly of the genus Vorticella by making a new analysis with a broad range of samples… Expand
Phylogeny of the families Zoothamniidae and Epistylididae (Protozoa: Ciliophora: Peritrichia) based on analyses of three rRNA-coding regions.
TLDR
Intrafamilial phylogeny of some peritrichs was investigated using information from three genes, which provided more robust interpretations than single-gene analyses, and evolutionary hypotheses can be inferred. Expand
An ITS-based phylogenetic framework for the genus Vorticella: finding the molecular and morphological gaps in a taxonomically difficult group
TLDR
Molecular systematics for this group of ciliates are moved to the infrageneric level by sequencing additional molecular markers—fast-evolving internal transcribed spacer regions—in a broad sample of 66 individual samples of 28 morphospecies of Vorticella collected from Asia, North America and Europe. Expand
Molecular Phylogeny of Mobilid and Sessilid Ciliates Symbiotic in Eastern Pacific Limpets (Mollusca: Patellogastropoda)
TLDR
It is hypothesized that cryptic speciation has produced these morphologically identical species and argued that more extensive genomic analyses are required to fully assess the monophyly, biogeography, and ultimately biodiversity of the peritrichs. Expand
Phylogenetic Investigations on Ten Genera of Tintinnid Ciliates (Ciliophora: Spirotrichea: Tintinnida), Based on Small Subunit Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequences
Tintinnida is a diverse taxon that accommodates over 1,500 morphospecies, which is an important component of marine planktonic food webs. However, evolutionary relationships of tintinnids are poorlyExpand
Morphology and Molecular Phylogeny of Peritrich Ciliate Epibionts on Pelagic Diatoms: Vorticella oceanica and Pseudovorticella coscinodisci sp. nov. (Ciliophora, Peritrichia).
TLDR
Consortia of the peritrich ciliate Vorticella oceanica and the planktonic diatom Chaetoceros coarctactus are reported from the South Atlantic Ocean, revealing a widespread distribution in tropical waters. Expand
Morphology and molecular analyses of four epibiotic peritrichs on crustacean and polychaete hosts, including descriptions of two new species (Ciliophora, Peritrichia).
TLDR
Four epibiotic sessilid peritrichs were isolated from one syllid polychaete and three crustacean hosts in Qingdao, China and Phylogenetic analyses reveal that R. commensalis is closely related to the family Astylozoidae rather than to the morphologically similar Epistylididae. Expand
Morphology and Phylogeny of Four New Vorticella Species (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) from Coastal Waters of Southern China
TLDR
Four new species of Vorticella were isolated from coastal brackish waters of southern China and their morphology, infraciliature, and silverline system were investigated based on observations of specimens both in vivo and following silver staining. Expand
Molecular and Morphological Characterization of a Poorly Known Marine Ciliate, Myoschiston duplicatum Precht, : Implications for Phylogenetic Relationships between Three Morphologically Similar Genera — Zoothamnium, Myoschiston, and Zoothamnopsis (Ciliophora, Peritrichia, Zoothamniidae)
TLDR
The morphology and molecular phylogeny of Myoschiston duplicatum, a peritrich ciliate that has been recorded as an epibiont of crustaceans, but which is also identified on marine algae from Korea, is studied to provide an improved diagnosis and phylogenetic relationship in the family Zoothamniidae between the three morphologically similar genera. Expand
Two New Species of Zoothamnium (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) from Korea, with New Observations of Z. parahentscheli Sun et al., 2009
TLDR
Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the three Zoothamnium species described in this paper clustered with other members of the family Zoothamniidae, as expected. Expand
Morphological and Molecular Identification of a New Ciliate, Zoothamnium palmphlatum nov. spec. (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) from North China
TLDR
Phylogenetic analyses of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence show that Z. palmphlatum clusters with other members of the family Zoothamniidae, and the comparison of primary and secondary SSU rDNA structures indicates that Z.'"s structure is distinctly different from its morphologically similar species. Expand
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References

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Molecular phylogeny of the family Vorticellidae (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) using combined datasets with a special emphasis on the three morphologically similar genera Carchesium, Epicarchesium and Apocarchesium.
TLDR
P phylogenetic analyses of vorticellids based on the sequence of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, including one species of the genus Apocarchesium, for which no sequence has previously been reported are performed to explore further the phylogenetic relationship between the three morphologically similar genera. Expand
A Molecular Phylogenetic Investigation of Opisthonecta and Related Genera (Ciliophora, Peritrichia, Sessilida)
TLDR
On the basis of genetic evidence, genera of the families Opisthonectidae and Astylozoidae are assigned to the family Vorticellidae, and Epistylis galea, Campanella umbellaria, and Opercularia microdiscum are confirmed as comprising an extremely distinct, monophyletic, but morphologically heterogeneous clade that is basal to other clades of sessiline peritrichs. Expand
A Molecular Phylogenetic Investigation of Zoothamnium (Ciliophora, Peritrichia, Sessilida) 1
TLDR
It is apparent that Zoothamnium is a richly diverse genus and that a much more intensive investigation will be necessary to resolve its phylogeny, indicating that characteristics of stalk and peristomial structure traditionally used to differentiate taxa at the generic level and above may not be uniformly reliable. Expand
Phylogenetic Relationships of the Subclass Peritrichia (Oligohymenophorea, Ciliophora) Inferred from Small Subunit rRNA Gene Sequences1
TLDR
The phylogenetic relationships among peritrichs remain unresolved and trees were constructed using distance-matrix, maximum-likelihood and maximum-parsimony methods, all of which strongly supported the monophyly of the subclass Peritrichia. Expand
Phylogenetic Relationships of the Subclass Peritrichia (Oligohymenophorea, Ciliophora) with Emphasis on the Genus Epistylis, Inferred from Small Subunit rRNA Gene Sequences
TLDR
It is concluded that the perstomial area, especially the peristomial lip, might be the important phylogenetic character within the genus Epistylis. Expand
Taxonomic Characterization of Vorticella fusca Precht, 1935 and Vorticella parapulchella n. sp., Two Marine Peritrichs (Ciliophora, Oligohymenophorea) from China
TLDR
The poorly known species V. fusca is redescribed, adding information about the oral infraciliature and pellicular morphology of Vorticella parapulchella n. Expand
Molecular Phylogenetics of Subclass Peritrichia (Ciliophora: Oligohymenophorea) Based on Expanded Analyses of 18S rRNA Sequences
TLDR
The main results are that the monophyly of Peritrichia cannot be rejected; the two main clades of Sessilida do not correspond to formally recognized taxa; and morphological structures commonly used in peritrich taxonomy may be evolutionarily labile. Expand
Phylogeny and taxonomic revision of plastid-containing euglenophytes based on SSU rDNA sequence comparisons and synapomorphic signatures in the SSU rRNA secondary structure.
TLDR
Sequence comparisons and a revised classification of the Euglenophyceae were based on 92 new SSU rDNA sequences obtained from strains of Euglena, Astasia, Phacus, Trachelomonas, Colacium, Cryptoglena, Lepocinclis, EUTreptia, Eutreptiella and TetreutrePTia, and one lineage was recognized as the previously neglected genus Monomorphina Mereschkowsky (1877). Expand
Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic revision of Chlamydomonas (Chlorophyta). I. Emendation of Chlamydomonas Ehrenberg and Chloromonas Gobi, and description of Oogamochlamys gen. nov. and Lobochlamys gen. nov.
TLDR
The polyphyletic Chloromonas (traditionally defined as "Chlamydomonas without pyrenoids") can be legitimized as a monophyletic genus by restriction to this clade and is here emended on the basis of chloroplast characters. Expand
BIOCHEMICAL TAXONOMY AND MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF THE GENUS CHLORELLA SENSU LATO (CHLOROPHYTA)
TLDR
It is proposed that only four species should be kept in the genus Chlorella (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae), and these taxa can easily be recognized by the production of secondary carotenoids under nitrogen‐deficient conditions. Expand
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