Voluntary settlement and the spirit of independence: evidence from Japan's "Northern frontier".

  title={Voluntary settlement and the spirit of independence: evidence from Japan's "Northern frontier".},
  author={Shinobu Kitayama and Keiko Ishii and Toshie Imada and Kosuke Takemura and Jenny Ramaswamy},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  volume={91 3},
The authors hypothesized that economically motivated voluntary settlement in the frontier fosters independent agency. While illuminating the historical origin of American individualism, this hypothesis can be most powerfully tested in a region that is embedded in a broader culture of interdependence and yet has undergone a recent history of such settlement. The authors therefore examined residents of Japan's northern island (Hokkaido). Hokkaido was extensively settled by ethnic Japanese… 

Figures from this paper

Consequences of Voluntary Settlement: Normative Beliefs Related to Independence in Hokkaido

Voluntary settlement is linked to the ethos of independence. However, it is unclear whether initial cultural contexts in frontier areas influence this ethos. The present study focused on Hokkaido, a

The origins of cultural divergence: evidence from Vietnam

Cultural norms diverge substantially across societies, often within the same country. We propose and investigate a self-domestication/selective migration hypothesis , proposing that cultural

Ethos of independence across regions in the United States: the production-adoption model of cultural change.

Eastern residents of the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries may have actively adopted the frontier practices of independence, thus incorporating the frontier ethos of independence to form the contemporary U.S. national culture.

Voluntary settlement and its consequences on predictors of happiness: the influence of initial cultural context

Hokkaido—a northern island of Japan that was settled by ethnic Japanese during the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century—may remain to be a hybrid of interdependent culture of the

Evidence from a Developing Country

Cultural norms diverge substantially across societies, often within the same country. In the present paper, we propose and investigate the selective migration hypothesis, proposing that cultural

Frontier Culture: The Roots and Persistence of “Rugged Individualism” in the United States

The presence of a westward‐moving frontier of settlement shaped early U.S. history. In 1893, the historian Frederick Jackson Turner famously argued that the American frontier fostered individualism.

Cosmopolitan cities: the frontier in the twenty-first century?

The findings illuminate the role of cosmopolitan settlement in the contemporary cultural change toward independence and have implications for urban development and economic growth.

Frontier Culture : Historical Roots and Persistence of “ Rugged Individualism ” in the United States ∗

In a classic 1893 essay, Frederick Jackson Turner argued that the American frontier promoted individualism. In this paper, we restate the Frontier thesis and examine its relevance at the subnational

Those Who Stayed: Individualism, Self-Selection and Cultural Change During the Age of Mass Migration

This paper examines the joint evolution of emigration and individualism in Scandinavia during the Age of Mass Migration (1850-1920). A long-standing hypothesis holds that people of a stronger

Ongoing Voluntary Settlement and Independent Agency: Evidence from China

It is hypothesized that residents of Shenzhen are more independent than those in other regions of Mainland China, and the results indicate that, even in a short-term ongoing frontier, voluntary settlement is associated with independent agency.



Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values.

Modernization theorists from Karl Marx to Daniel Bell have argued that economic development brings pervasive cultural changes. But others, from Max Weber to Samuel Huntington, have claimed that

Causal attribution across cultures: Variation and universality.

Growing cross-cultural evidence suggests that East Asians are less likely to show the correspondence bias, or a preference for explanations of behavior in terms of traits, dispositions, or other

Social representations of the individual: A post-Communist perspective

Social representations of the individual are examined in three post-Communist Central European nations, i.e. the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary, and in three West European nations, i.e.

Going for the Gold

Differences in the construction of agency are reflected in and fostered by common cultural products (e.g., television accounts), and are confirmed in the analysis of media coverage of the 2000 and 2002 Olympics.

Culture and Self: Are There Within-Culture Differences in Self Between Metropolitan Areas and Regional Cities?

Comparing Australians and Japanese participants living in regional cities and metropolitan areas provides support for the tripartite division of the self and suggests a need to construct a culture theory that links self and societal processes.

The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

This paper examines the development of medical technology in terms of Max Weber's theory of rationalization. It argues that medical technology is a part of the general process of social, political

Patterns of individualism and collectivism across the United States

Although the individualism-collectivism dimension is usually examined in a U.S. versus Asian context, there is variation within the United States. The authors created an eight-item index ranking

Culture and development of everyday social explanation.

  • J. G. Miller
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1984
Evidence suggests that these cross-cultural and developmental differences result from contrasting cultural conceptions of the person acquired over development in the two cultures rather than from cognitive.