Voluntary settlement and the spirit of independence: evidence from Japan's "Northern frontier".

@article{Kitayama2006VoluntarySA,
  title={Voluntary settlement and the spirit of independence: evidence from Japan's "Northern frontier".},
  author={Shinobu Kitayama and Keiko Ishii and Toshie Imada and Kosuke Takemura and Jenny Ramaswamy},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={2006},
  volume={91 3},
  pages={
          369-84
        }
}
The authors hypothesized that economically motivated voluntary settlement in the frontier fosters independent agency. While illuminating the historical origin of American individualism, this hypothesis can be most powerfully tested in a region that is embedded in a broader culture of interdependence and yet has undergone a recent history of such settlement. The authors therefore examined residents of Japan's northern island (Hokkaido). Hokkaido was extensively settled by ethnic Japanese… 

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