Voluntary facial action generates emotion-specific autonomic nervous system activity.

  title={Voluntary facial action generates emotion-specific autonomic nervous system activity.},
  author={Robert W Levenson and Paul Ekman and W V Friesen},
  volume={27 4},
Four experiments were conducted to determine whether voluntarily produced emotional facial configurations are associated with differentiated patterns of autonomic activity, and if so, how this might be mediated. Subjects received muscle-by-muscle instructions and coaching to produce facial configurations for anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise while heart rate, skin conductance, finger temperature, and somatic activity were monitored. Results indicated that voluntary facial… 

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