Voluntary exercise alters the cytoarchitecture of the adult dentate gyrus by increasing cellular proliferation, dendritic complexity, and spine density

@article{Eadie2005VoluntaryEA,
  title={Voluntary exercise alters the cytoarchitecture of the adult dentate gyrus by increasing cellular proliferation, dendritic complexity, and spine density},
  author={Brennan D. Eadie and Van Allan Redila and Brian R. Christie},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Neurology},
  year={2005},
  volume={486}
}
Voluntary exercise produces a dramatic increase in the number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)‐positive cells in the adult dentate gyrus (DG); however, it has never been determined whether this increase reflects neurogenic activity or some exercise‐induced change in the metabolic processing of systemically injected BrdU. In these experiments, we show that 1) 200 mg/kg is a saturating dose for single injections of BrdU in both control and voluntary exercise animals; 2) there is significantly more… 

Stress differentially regulates the effects of voluntary exercise on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of mice

Findings indicate that social housing may increase the effects of any stressful episodes on hippocampal neurogenesis in the mouse DG, and voluntary exercise produces a significant increase in cell proliferation in the adult mouse DG in both isolated and socially housed mice.

Forced running enhances neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult rats and improves learning ability.

It is suggested that forced running in motor-driven wheel could enhance neurogenesis in the hippocampal DG of adult rats and improve learning ability.

Long-term exercise is needed to enhance synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

It is found that voluntary access to a running wheel for both short- and long-term periods can increase cell proliferation in the adult DG; however, increases in neurogenesis required longer term exposure to exercise.

The effects of exercise and stress on the survival and maturation of adult‐generated granule cells

It is demonstrated that running has strong effects on survival and maturation of young granule cells as well as their birth and that stress can have positive but short‐lived effects on granule cell survival.

Impact of Treadmill Running and Sex on Hippocampal Neurogenesis in the Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

It is concluded that G93A mice show higher hippocampal neurogenesis, in association with higher BDNF expression, yet running did not further enhance these phenomena in G 93A mice, probably due to a ‘ceiling effect’ of an already heightened basal levels of hippocampal Neurogenesis andBDNF expression.

Running per se stimulates the dendritic arbor of newborn dentate granule cells in mouse hippocampus in a duration‐dependent manner

Examination of neurogenesis and dendritic arborization in newly formed granular cells in adult C57Bl/6N male mice housed for 3 weeks under standard conditions indicates that the presence of a blocked wheel in the home cage increased cell proliferation, but not the number of new neurons while running increased in a duration‐dependent manner.

Environmental enrichment and voluntary exercise massively increase neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus via dissociable pathways

It is concluded that EE and VEx lead to an increase in overall hippocampal neurogenesis via dissociable pathways, and should therefore, be considered distinct interventions with regard to hippocampal plasticity and associated behaviors.

Physical exercise leads to rapid adaptations in hippocampal vasculature: Temporal dynamics and relationship to cell proliferation and neurogenesis

Together these experiments show that the hippocampus displays a remarkable angiogenic and neurogenic plasticity and rapidly responds to changes in physical activity.

Imaging activation of adult-generated granule cells in spatial memory

This protocol describes the immunohistochemical procedures to visualize the recruitment of new neurons into circuits supporting spatial memory in intact mice and the degree of overlap between BrdU-labeled and Fos- labels provides an indication of whether adult-generated granule neurons have been incorporated into spatial memory circuits.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 61 REFERENCES

Adult neurogenesis produces a large pool of new granule cells in the dentate gyrus

A high dose of BrdU (300 mg/kg) is shown to be a specific, quantitative, and nontoxic marker of dividing cells in the adult rat dentate gyrus, whereas lower doses label only a fraction of the S‐phase cells.

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis and voluntary running activity: Circadian and dose‐dependent effects

The data suggest that the influence of exercise on cell proliferation and neurogenesis is modulated by both circadian phase and the amount of daily exercise, thus providing new insight into the complex relationship between physiological and behavioral factors that can mediate adult neuroplasticity.

Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus

It is demonstrated that voluntary exercise is sufficient for enhanced neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus, in amounts similar to enrichment conditions.

Peripheral Infusion of IGF-I Selectively Induces Neurogenesis in the Adult Rat Hippocampus

Investigation of the effect of the peripheral administration of IGF-I on cellular proliferation in the dentate subgranular proliferative zone of the hippocampus and on the subsequent migration and differentiation of progenitor cells within the GCL shows that peripheral infusion of insulin-like growth factor-I increases progensitor cell proliferation and selectively induces neurogenesis in the progeny of adult neural progenitors.

Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus of the Adult Tree Shrew Is Regulated by Psychosocial Stress and NMDA Receptor Activation

Results indicate that adult neurogenesis occurs in the tree shrew dentate gyrus and is regulated by a stressful experience and NMDA receptor activation, and it is suggested that these characteristics may be common to most mammalian species.

Exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis to high levels but does not improve spatial learning in mice bred for increased voluntary wheel running.

Evidence is shown that neurogenesis can occur without learning enhancement in mice selectively bred for high levels of wheel running, which is the first evidence that Neurogenesis could occur without enhancement.

Effects of adult neurogenesis on synaptic plasticity in the rat dentate gyrus.

It is concluded that the young, adult-generated granule neurons play a significant role in synaptic plasticity in the DG, the major source of the afferent inputs into the hippocampus.
...