Voltammetric analysis using a self-renewable non-mercury electrode

  title={Voltammetric analysis using a self-renewable non-mercury electrode},
  author={P. Surmann and Hanan Zeyat},
  journal={Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry},
Galinstan is a new kind of electrode material and the galinstan electrode is a promising alternative to the commonly used mercury electrodes. The eutectic mixture of gallium, indium and tin is liquid at room temperature (m.p. −19°C) and its voltammetric behaviour is similar to that of mercury. The potential windows of use were determined for different pH values and are similar to those obtained with conventional mercury electrodes. Furthermore, the high hydrogen overpotential, which is… Expand
Anodic Stripping Voltammetry with Galinstan as Working Electrode
The liquid alloy galinstan is used to determine low concentrations in microgram per liter level of trace metals like copper, cadmium, lead, bismuth, antimony and thallium using anodic strippingExpand
Sampled voltammetry on an electrode array for the renewal of the electrode surface and the analytical solution during the analysis
Polarography with dropping mercury electrode has been widely used in electroanalysis. However, the method is less and less employed due to the toxicity of mercury. In this work, we have shown that itExpand
Electrochemical Properties and Range of Application of Mixed Gold Bismuth Electrodes
Electrochemical properties for mixed gold-bismuth electrodes have been evaluated. Increased overpotential towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was found as a function of increased bismuthExpand
Application of a nanoporous gold electrode for the sensitive detection of copper via mercury-free anodic stripping voltammetry.
The MPS-modified NPG (MPS@NPG) electrode not only significantly enhanced the sensitivity in detecting Cu(2+) but also effectively prevented electrode surface fouling from surfactant adsorption. Expand
How to Improve the Performance of Electrochemical Sensors via Minimization of Electrode Passivation
It follows from critical evaluation of possibilities and limitations of modern voltammetric/amperometric methods that one of the biggest obstacles in their practical applications in real sampleExpand
Note: electrode polarization of Galinstan electrodes for liquid impedance spectroscopy.
Electrode polarization is a significant obstacle in the impedance measurements of ionic liquids. An atomically smooth electrode surface could potentially reduce unwanted impedance contributions fromExpand
Nearly reversible polarographic waves of ferrocenecarboxylate at dropping carbon fluid electrodes
Abstract A new polarography was studied with dropping carbon fluid electrode (DCFE), composed of graphite powder and low-viscosity liquid paraffin. By using a stainless steel capillary with 0.37 mmExpand
Use of a Sonogel-Carbon electrode modified with bentonite for the determination of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride in tablets and their metabolite oxazepam in urine.
Sonogel-Carbon electrode (SngCE) modified with bentonite (BENT) shows an interesting alternative electrode to be used in the determination of 1,4-benzodiazepines by square wave adsorptive cathodicExpand
Function of Indium in the Mixed ITE Activator for Lead-acid Batteries
The behaviors of In3+ and activator were studied on Pb anode of lead-acid batteries. The deposition of In with high hydrogen overpotential during the potential scan deviates negatively the hydrogenExpand
Polarography with a dropping carbon electrode
Abstract Fluid carbon electrodes for polarography were studied. A mixture of dioctyl phthalate and diiodomethane was found to be suitable to prepare a dropping carbon electrode. With this droppingExpand


Pyrolytic carbon film electrodes
Home-made pyrolytic carbon film electrodes (PCFE) were tested in voltammetric experiments. Different drugs were analyzed by differential pulse voltammetry. In many cases the reproducibility of theExpand
Anodic stripping voltammetry with mercury electrode potential-step and current-step methods
Abstract Prof. N. Tanaka (Sendai): (1) What is the difference of this method and the method proposed by Dr. Hickling? (2) How can this method be applied when two substances are present in theExpand
Scanning tunneling microscopic and voltammetric studies of the surface structures of an electrochemically activated glassy carbon electrode.
The microscopic surface structures of electrochemically activated glassy carbon have been examined by scanning tunneling microscopy and, on the basis of the STM voltammetric results, the microscopic structure of the activated electrode is proposed. Expand
Scanning electrochemical microscopy: Investigation of hydrogen oxidation at polycrystalline noble metal electrodes
Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was used to study the kinetics of hydrogen oxidation on platinum, iridium, and rhodium substrates in acidic media. Hydrogen was generated at a platinum tipExpand
Pyrolytic carbon film electrodes
SummaryThe preparation is described of pyrolytic carbon film electrodes (PCFE) with outstanding properties. The physical and chemical resistance is remarkable as is the low residual current inExpand
Electroinjection of colloid particles and biopolymers into single unilamellar liposomes and cells for bioanalytical applications.
A combined electroporation and pressure-driven microinjection method for efficient loading of biopolymers and colloidal particles into single-cell-sized unilamellar liposomes was developed and initiation of a chemical intercalation reaction between T2-phage DNA and YOYO-1 is demonstrated by dual injection into a single giant unilamese liposome. Expand
A galinstan expansion femtosyringe for microinjection of eukaryotic organelles and prokaryotes
Injection of a plasmid containing the bla gene into the cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum resulted in transformed ampicillin-resistant cultures and green fluorescent protein was expressed in attached leaves of tobacco and Vicia faba following injection of DNA cantaining its gene into individual chloroplasts. Expand
Oszillationserscheinungen an einer bei Raumtemperatur flüssigen Galliumlegierung
Zusammenfassung. Elektrochemisch induzierte Oszillationserscheinungen an Quecksilber sind seit fast 200 Jahren bekannt. Neuere Untersuchungen konnten zu diesem Phänomen des sogenannten ,,pulsierendenExpand