Voltage associated with spontaneous embryonic motility in the developing chicken: an automated characterization during mid-late embryogenesis.

Abstract

Movement of developing chicken embryos and their associated membranes generates voltage detectable with electrodes inserted just beneath the eggshell. Use of such voltages as a motility indicator offers an embryonic behavioral assessment method less subjective and invasive than observational methods using windows that disrupt substantial portions of the… (More)

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