Volcanoes and the Climate Forcing of Carolingian Europe, A.D. 750-950

  title={Volcanoes and the Climate Forcing of Carolingian Europe, A.D. 750-950},
  author={Michael McCormick and Paul Edward Dutton and Paul A. Mayewski},
  pages={865 - 895}
Revolutionary advances of the natural sciences will transform our understanding of the human past. This case study supports that thesis by connecting new data arising from the last decade's scientific work in palaeoclimatology with the history of the Carolingian empire. For medievalists, it may open the door to a potent new set of insights into the total past of European civilization. For climate scientists, this study clarifies an opportunity to observe the impact on human society of… Expand
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73 "Necem ducum asperrima hiemps hiememque secuta est fames validissima
  • Die Regesten des Kaiserreichs unter Heinrich I. und Otto I
  • 1967
Paschasius Radbertus may be referring precisely to these climate anomalies as the "inclemencies of the weather" that, among other signs, announced God's displeasure with the sins of the Franks
  • Abhandlungen der Kö niglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin
  • 1900
Andrew of Bergamo refers to strange precipitation on Easter of 873 (not 872, as the editor writes, for the locust plague occurred in the same year in August)
  • Studien zu den Annales Xantenses
As Fig. 5 shows, GISP2's "926" SO 4 deposit does rise above the background level to 45 ppb
    Elle fut suivie de la peste et de violentes épidémies qui enlevèrent beaucoup de monde
    • 70 Annals of Ulster, a. 912.8 and a. 913
    En 260
    • une famine terrible ravagea l'Ifrîk'iyya
    Hiems saeva hoc anno facta, et pestis animalium subsecuta
    • 76 Although they connect the famine with the comet of 941, e.g., Annales Laubienses, a. 941
    On this source, see Holtzmann, Wattenbach, and Schmale
    • Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im Mittelalter