Volcanic winter and accelerated glaciation following the Toba super-eruption

  title={Volcanic winter and accelerated glaciation following the Toba super-eruption},
  author={Michael R. Rampino and Stephen Self},
THE eruption of Toba in Sumatra 73,500 years ago was the largest known explosive volcanic event in the late Quaternary1. It could have lofted about 1015 g each of fine ash and sulphur gases to heights of 27–37 km, creating dense stratospheric dust and aerosol clouds. Here we present model calculations that investigate the possible climatic effects of the volcanic cloud. The increase in atmospheric opacity might have produced a 'volcanic winter'2—a brief, pronounced regional and perhaps… Expand
Climate-Volcanism Feedback and the Toba Eruption of ∼74,000 Years Ago
Abstract A general feedback between volcanism and climate at times of transition in the Quaternary climate record is suggested, exemplified by events accompanying the Toba eruption (∼74,000 yr ago),Expand
Gigantic volcanic eruptions and climatic change in the early Eocene
Abstract23 layers of altered volcanic ash (bentonites) originating from the North Atlantic Igneous Province have been recorded in early Eocene deposits of the Austrian Alps, about 1,900 km away fromExpand
Volcanic eruptions have the potential to force global climate, provided they are explosive enough to emit at least 1–5 megaton of sulfur gases into the stratosphere. The sulfuric acid produced duringExpand
Climatic Impact of Volcanic Eruptions
  • G. Zielinski
  • Environmental Science, Medicine
  • TheScientificWorldJournal
  • 2002
Using analysis of ice-core, tree-ring, and geologic records in conjunction with climate proxy data indicates that multiple eruptions may force climate on decadal time scales, as appears to have occurred during the Little Ice Age. Expand
Environmental impact of the 73 ka Toba super-eruption in South Asia
Abstract The cooling effects of historic volcanic eruptions on world climate are well known but the impacts of even bigger prehistoric eruptions are still shrouded in mystery. The eruption of TobaExpand
The role of microphysical and chemical processes in prolonging the climate forcing of the Toba Eruption
The mega-eruption of Toba, Sumatra, occurred around 73 Ka ago, during the onset of a glaciation of the Late Quaternary. This coincidence combined with the unprecedented amount of sulphur released byExpand
An AOGCM simulation of the climate response to a volcanic super-eruption
Volcanic ‘super-eruptions’ have been suggested to have significantly influenced the Earth’s climate, perhaps causing glaciations and impacting on the human population. Climatic changes following aExpand
Limited global change due to the largest known Quaternary eruption, Toba ≈74 kyr BP?
Abstract The ≈74 kyr BP “super-eruption” of Toba volcano in Sumatra is the largest known Quaternary eruption. On the basis of preserved deposits, the eruption magnitude has been estimated at ≈7×10 15Expand
Did the Toba volcanic eruption of 74 ka B.P. produce widespread glaciation
[1] It has been suggested that the Toba volcanic eruption, approximately 74 ka B.P., was responsible for the extended cooling period and ice sheet advance immediately following it, but previousExpand
From Volcanic Winter to Snowball Earth: An Alternative Explanation for Neoproterozoic Biosphere Stress
The ~450 million years of Neoproterozoic time (1000–542 Ma) was a remarkable episode of change in the Earth system and the biosphere. Here we develop and explore the hypothesis that explosiveExpand


Dimensions and dynamics of co-ignimbrite eruption columns
VERY powerful volcanic eruptions cannot always form classical Plinian eruption columns1–4. Instead, collapsing fountains may develop above the vent and shed pyroclastic flows which spread laterallyExpand
Oceanic evidence for the mechanism of rapid northern hemisphere glaciation
Abstract The oxygen isotopic stage 5/4 boundary in deep-sea sediments marks a prominent interval of northern hemisphere ice-sheet growth that lasted about 10,000 yr. During much of this rapid iceExpand
Can Rapid Climatic Change Cause Volcanic Eruptions?
Dust veils provide positive feedback for short-term (less than 10 year) global cooling, but seem unlikely to trigger glaciations or even minor climate fluctuations in the 10-to 100-year range. Expand
Duration of large-magnitude explosive eruptions deduced from graded bedding in deep-sea ash layers
Thick silicic volcanic ash layers commonly observed hundreds of kilometres from potential source areas have resulted from large-magnitude explosive eruptions that have no historical equivalents. WeExpand
Fluctuations of the Campanian explosive volcanic activity (South Italy) during the past 190,000 years, as determined by marine tephrochronology
Abstract A statistical analysis of the time variations of the frequency of explosive events is derived from the detailed record of marine tephra in deep-sea sediment cores of the centralExpand
Origin and consequences of cyclic ice rafting in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean during the past 130,000 years
Deep-sea sediment cores recovered from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean were examined in order to elucidate the influence of the Earth's orbital parameters on major ice rafting. Analyses ofExpand
Climatic impact of ice-age aerosols
Data from Antarctic1–3, Greenland4,5 and Devon Island6 ice cores indicate that large increases in the atmospheric aerosol loading occurred during the Last Glacial Maximum (LCM) of about 18,000 yr BP.Expand
Eruptive history of Earth's largest Quaternary caldera (Toba, Indonesia) clarified
Single-grain laser-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar analyses of individual sanidine phenocrysts from the two youngest Toba (Indonesia) tuffs yield mean ages of 73{plus minus}4 and 501{plus minus}5 ka. InExpand
Basaltic fissure eruptions, plume heights, and atmospheric aerosols
Convective plumes that rise above Hawaiian-style fire fountains consist of volcanic gases, aerosols, fine ash, and entrained heated air. Plume theory has been applied to observational estimates ofExpand
Self-limiting physical and chemical effects in volcanic eruption clouds
We have constructed one-dimensional aerosol microphysical and photochemical models to examine the chemistry of stratospheric volcanic clouds. Estimates of the stratospheric inputs of several keyExpand