Volcanic shards from Santorini (Upper Minoan ash) in the Nile Delta, Egypt

  title={Volcanic shards from Santorini (Upper Minoan ash) in the Nile Delta, Egypt},
  author={Daniel Jean Stanley and Harrison Sheng},
One of the largest volcanic outbursts recorded in early human history is the cataclysmic eruption of Santorini (Thera) which occurred about 35 centuries ago in the southern Aegean Sea. This explosive event, termed Upper Minoan (or Upper Thera), produced a tephra-fall believed by archaeologists and volcanologists to have been widespread in the eastern Mediterranean1–4. Upper Minoan ash has been found on land in the Aegean and Hellenic Arc regions including Crete5,6 and Rhodes7. To date, however… 
Marine tephra from the Cape Riva eruption (22 ka) of Santorini in the Sea of Marmara
Abstract A discrete tephra layer has been discovered in three marine sediment cores from the Sea of Marmara, eastern Mediterranean. The rhyodacitic glass chemistry and the stratigraphical position
Tephra from the Minoan eruption of Santorini in sediments of the Black Sea
THE explosive eruption of Santorini volcano in the Aegean Sea about 3,300 years ago is of considerable archaeological and volcanological significance1–5. Here we report the discovery of tephra from
The trace-element characteristics of Aegean and Aeolian volcanic arc marine tephra
Abstract High-silica volcanic ashes are found within deep-sea sediments throughout the Eastern Mediterranean. Although coring by Ocean Drilling Program has penetrated Lower Pliocene (∼4 Ma)
Geochemical correlation of archaeological sites using tephra from the Minoan eruption
Pumice and volcanic ash samples from different localities in the Middle East region were analysed for major and trace element contents using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Samples
The marsh of Gravgaz (N37°34’, E30°24’) is located 20km southeast of Burdur and 15 km southwest of the ancient city of Sagalassos. A few kilometres to the southeast of the marsh, the ruins (with a
A Major Change in the Stratigraphy of the Santorini Volcano in Greece
Two prominent and similar pumice series were described on Thera in 1879— the Upper and Lower Pumice Series (UPS and LPS). Since then, geologists have treated the two series separately because they
Quaternary stratigraphy of distal tephra layers in the Mediterranean—an overview
This paper reviews the results of fifty years of tephra studies in the Mediterranean basin. The tephrostratigraphy of the Eastern Mediterranean is defined well and has been developed in conjunction
Tephras, tsunamis, and modern carbonate beachrock
This paper has replaced my initial editorial on carbonate beachrock. The newspapers (local, regional, national, and international) report almost daily on the events leading to the beachrock
First evidence of a distal early Holocene ash layer in Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea sediments derived from the anatolian volcanic province
A hitherto unknown distal volcanic ash layer has been detected in a sediment core recovered from the southeastern Levantine Sea (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). Radiometric, stratigraphic and
The environmental impact of the Minoan eruption of Santorini (Thera): statistical analysis of palaeoecological data from Golbisar, southwest Turkey
A tephra layer originating from the mid-second millennium BC (3300 14C yr BP) ‘Minoan’ eruption of Santorini (or Thera) in the Aegean has been found in lake sediments at G6lhisar in southwest Turkey.


Sedimentology of the Minoan deep-sea tephra layer in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean
The Minoan eruption of Santorini resulted in deposition of pyroclastic material over a large area of the Aegean Sea and Eastern Mediterranean. The eruptive activity commenced with a plinian phase,
Santorini tephra from Rhodes
The large eruption of the Santorini (Thera) volcano, in ∼1500 BC, inspired Marinatos to attribute the decline of the Minoan civilization to this eruption1. It is still, however, being debated2,3
Volcanic Tephra on Crete
I. The problem: According to studies on Mediterranean deep-sea cores by Ninkovich and Heezen,' tephra from two violent volcanic eruptions must have fallen on Crete in prehistoric times. The first of
Caldera Development During the Minoan Eruption, Thira, Cyclades, Greece
The well-known caldera of Thira (Santorini), Greece, was not formed during a single eruption but is composed of two overlapping calderas superimposed upon a complex volcanic field that developed
The Minoan eruption of Santorini, Greece
The Minoan eruption of Santorini produced the following sequence of deposits: a plinian pumice fall deposit, interbedded surtseyan-type ash fall and base surge deposits, mud-flow deposits and
Electron microprobe correlation of tephra layers from Eastern Mediterranean abyssal sediments and the Island of Santorini
Five widespread tephra layers are found in late Quaternary sediments (0–130,000 yr B.P.) of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. These layers have been correlated among abyssal cores and to their
Explosive volcanic activity in the Mediterranean over the past 200
As many as 20 air-borne tephra layers have been identified in the upper Quaternary sequence of deep-sea cores from the eastern Mediterranean. Petrographical examination based on refractive index,
Archaeomagnetic dating of Santorini volcanic eruptions and fired destruction levels of late Minoan civilization
Archaeomagnetic dating on the Minoan ash horizons of the Santorini volcano and on fired destruction levels at late Minoan sites on Crete demonstrates that the basal (Plinian) air-fall ash of the
The Volcanic Destruction of Minoan Crete
In the long history of Minoan civilization two great catastrophes are discernible, of which the famous Cretan palaces themselves provide the chief source of our knowledge. Everywhere the catastrophes
Physical and Chemical Properties of Volcanic Glass Shards from Pozzuolana Ash, Thera Island, and from Upper and Lower Ash Layers in Eastern Mediterranean Deep Sea Sediments
Two volcanic ash layers have been correlated in deep sea piston cores from the eastern Mediterranean1,2. The lower ash layer (n = 1.521) occurs between late Würm carbonate sediment and originated in