Volcanic mesocyclones

@article{Chakraborty2009VolcanicM,
  title={Volcanic mesocyclones},
  author={Pinaki Chakraborty and Gustavo Gioia and Susan W. Kieffer},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2009},
  volume={458},
  pages={497-500}
}
A strong volcanic plume consists of a vertical column of hot gases and dust topped with a horizontal ‘umbrella’. The column rises, buoyed by entrained and heated ambient air, reaches the neutral-buoyancy level, then spreads radially to form the umbrella. In classical models of strong volcanic plumes, the plume is assumed to remain always axisymmetric and non-rotating. Here we show that the updraught of the rising column induces a hydrodynamic effect not addressed to date—a ‘volcanic mesocyclone… 

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