Volcanic iron, CO2, ocean productivity and climate

  title={Volcanic iron, CO2, ocean productivity and climate},
  author={Andrew J. Watson},
  • A. Watson
  • Published 1997
  • Environmental Science
  • Nature
Volcanic ash supply to the surface ocean—remote sensing of biological responses and their wider biogeochemical significance
Transient micronutrient enrichment of the surface ocean can enhance phytoplankton growth rates and alter microbial community structure with an ensuing spectrum of biogeochemical feedbacks. StrongExpand
Climate forcing by iron fertilization from repeated ignimbrite eruptions: the icehouse-silicic large igneous province (SLIP) hypothesis.
During middle Eocene to middle Miocene time, development of the Cenozoic icehouse was coincident with a prolonged episode of explosive silicic volcanism, the ignimbrite flare-up of southwestern NorthExpand
Strong responses of Southern Ocean phytoplankton communities to volcanic ash
Volcanic eruptions have been hypothesized as an iron supply mechanism for phytoplankton blooms; however, little direct evidence of stimulatory responses has been obtained in the field. Here weExpand
Unusual subpolar North Atlantic phytoplankton bloom in 2010: Volcanic fertilization or North Atlantic Oscillation?
In summer and autumn 2010, a highly anomalous phytoplankton bloom, with chlorophyll concentration more than double that of previous years, was observed in the Irminger Basin, southwest of Iceland.Expand
Subduction zone volcanic ash can fertilize the surface ocean and stimulate phytoplankton growth: Evidence from biogeochemical experiments and satellite data
Volcanoes confront Earth scientists with new fundamental questions: Can airborne volcanic ash release nutrients on contact with seawater, thereby excite the marine primary productivity (MPP); and,Expand
Relationship between the 2014–2015 Holuhraun eruption and the iron record in the East GRIP snow pit
ABSTRACT We conducted a 2 m snow pit study in July 2017 at the East GRIP (Greenland Ice-Core Project; northeastern Greenland) deep ice-coring site. We collected snow samples at intervals of 0.05 mExpand
Interactive comment on “ Volcano impacts on climate and biogeochemistry in a coupled carbon-climate model ” by D
We recently published a paper in Biogeosciences (2011) entitled “Sensitivity of atmospheric CO2 and climate to explosive volcanic eruptions”, where we describe the sensitivity (magnitude andExpand
Atmospheric distribution and removal of volcanic ash after the eruption of Kasatochi volcano: A regional model study
[1] In August 2008, Kasatochi volcano on the Aleutian Islands erupted without much advance warning. Volcanic ash released during this eruption quickly settled out of the atmosphere, mainly into theExpand
Volcanic ash as fertiliser for the surface ocean
Abstract. Iron is a key limiting micro-nutrient for marine primary productivity. It can be supplied to the ocean by atmospheric dust deposition. Volcanic ash deposition into the ocean representsExpand
The role of airborne volcanic ash for the surface ocean biogeochemical iron-cycle: a review
Iron is a key micronutrient for phytoplankton growth in the surface ocean. Yet the significance of volcanism for the marine biogeochemical iron-cycle is poorly constrained. Recent studies, however,Expand


A massive phytoplankton bloom induced by an ecosystem-scale iron fertilization experiment in the equatorial Pacific Ocean
Observations provide unequivocal support for the hypothesis that phytoplankton growth in this oceanic region is limited by iron bioavailability. Expand
Confirmation of iron limitation of phytoplankton photosynthesis in the equatorial Pacific Ocean
In situ measurements of fluorescence during IronEx II show that the iron enrichment triggered biophysical alterations of the phytoplankton's photosynthetic apparatus, resulting in increased photosynthesis capacities throughout the experiment and, hence, the observed bloom. Expand
Global and hemispheric CO2 sinks deduced from changes in atmospheric O2 concentration
THE global budget for sources and sinks of anthropogenic CO2 has been found to be out of balance unless the oceanic sink is supplemented by an additional 'missing sink', plausibly associated withExpand
Increased dimethyl sulphide concentrations in sea water from in situ iron enrichment
THE concentrations of bioavailable iron in the surface waters of some ocean regions may indirectly modulate climate by controlling phytoplankton productivity and thus the amounts of carbon dioxide1Expand
Large decrease in ocean-surface CO2 fugacity in response to in situ iron fertilization
THE equatorial Pacific Ocean is a 'high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll' region where nitrate and phosphate are abundant all year round. These nutrients cannot therefore be limiting to phytoplanktonExpand
Changes in Antarctic stratospheric aerosol characteristics due to volcanic eruptions as monitored by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II satellite
An estimated 20–30 megatons of SO2 and crustal material was injected into the stratosphere during June 12–16, 1991, by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (15.1°N, 120.4°E). The impact on AntarcticExpand
Evidence for a higher pH in the glacial ocean from boron isotopes in foraminifera
RECORDS of past changes in the pH of the oceans should provide insights into how the carbonate chemistry of the oceans has changed over time. The latter is related to changes in the atmospheric CO2Expand
Increased biological productivity and export production in the glacial Southern Ocean
A range of complementary radionuclide proxies in sediments of the southernmost Atlantic Ocean over the past 140,000 years indicate that glacial periods were characterized by greatly increased fluxesExpand
Iron uptake and growth limitation in oceanic and coastal phytoplankton
Iron concentrations in open ocean are orders of magnitude lower than levels in coastal waters. Experiments with coastal and oceanic phytoplankton clones representing different algal groups and cellExpand
Effect of deep-sea sedimentary calcite preservation on atmospheric CO2 concentration
DURING the last glaciation, the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration was about 30% less than the Holocene pre-industrial value1. Although this change is thought to originate in oceanicExpand