Rhizobacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in the suppression of soil-borne phytopathogens. In this study, the VOCs produced by a soil-isolate, Bacillus subtilis FA26, were evaluated in vitro for their antibacterial activity against Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. sepedonicus (Cms), the causal agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. The VOCs emitted by FA26 inhibited the growth of Cms significantly compared with the control. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed distorted colony morphology and a wide range of abnormalities in Cms cells exposed to the VOCs of FA26. Varying the inoculation strategy and inoculum size showed that the production and activity of the antibacterial VOCs of FA26 were dependent on the culture conditions. Headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that FA26 produced 11 VOCs. Four VOCs (benzaldehyde, nonanal, benzothiazole and acetophenone) were associated with the antibacterial activity against Cms. The results suggested that the VOCs produced by FA26 could control the causal agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. This information will increase our understanding of the microbial interactions mediated by VOCs in nature and aid the development of safer strategies for controlling plant disease.