Volatile constituents of wolf (Canis lupus) urine as related to gender and season

@article{Raymer1984VolatileCO,
  title={Volatile constituents of wolf (Canis lupus) urine as related to gender and season},
  author={James H. Raymer and Donald Wiesler and Milos Novotny and Cheryl S. Asa and Ulysses S. Seal and L David Mech},
  journal={Experientia},
  year={1984},
  volume={40},
  pages={707-709}
}
The volatile constituents of wolf urine were examined via capillary gas chromatography and compared among male, female, and castrate male. Several compounds including methyl isopentyl sulfide, 3,5-dimethyl-2-octanone, and acetophenone were clearly associated with the gender of the animal and many displayed a seasonal dependence. In addition, 2 long-chain aldehydes isolated from urine samples by an HPLC procedure also correlated with the endocrine status of the animal. 

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