Dry vs soaked wood: modulating the volatile extractible fraction of oak wood by heat treatments.
The volatile composition (volatile phenols, phenolic aldehydes, furanic compounds, lactones, phenyl ketones, and other related compounds) of Spanish oak heartwood of Quercus robur, Quercus petraea,Quercus pyrenaica, and Quercus faginea was studied by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, in relation to the processing in barrels cooperage and in relation to the French oak of Quercus robur (Limousin) and Quercus petraea (Allier) and American oak of Quercus alba (Missouri), which are habitually used in cooperage. The volatile composition of seasoned oak woods varied according to individual trees, species, and origins, and the differences were more significant in Spanish species with respect to American species than with respect to French species. The toasting process influenced the volatile composition of wood. It led to high increases in the concentration of volatile phenols, furanic aldehydes, phenyl ketones, and other related structures, but the effect on w-lactones levels depended on species and origin. The volatile composition in Spanish oak species evolved during toasting like in French and American oak, but quantitative differences were found, especially important in American species with respect to European species.