Vocalization by extant nonavian reptiles: A synthetic overview of phonation and the vocal apparatus

  title={Vocalization by extant nonavian reptiles: A synthetic overview of phonation and the vocal apparatus},
  author={Anthony Patrick Russell and Aaron M. Bauer},
  journal={The Anatomical Record},
  pages={1478 - 1528}
Among amniote vertebrates, nonavian reptiles (chelonians, crocodilians, and lepidosaurs) are regarded as using vocal signals rarely (compared to birds and mammals). In all three reptilian clades, however, certain taxa emit distress calls and advertisement calls using modifications of regions of the upper respiratory tract. There is no central tendency in either acoustic mechanisms or the structure of the vocal apparatus, and many taxa that vocalize emit only relatively simple sounds. Available… 
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