Vocal cord dysfunction in children and adolescents

@article{Tilles2003VocalCD,
  title={Vocal cord dysfunction in children and adolescents},
  author={Stephen A. Tilles},
  journal={Current Allergy and Asthma Reports},
  year={2003},
  volume={3},
  pages={467-472}
}
  • S. Tilles
  • Published 1 November 2003
  • Medicine
  • Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a nonorganic disorder of the larynx that involves unintentional paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords while breathing. The resultant symptoms can include dyspnea, chest tightness, cough, throat tightness, wheezing, or voice change. Most patients with VCD are female, and among adolescents and children, VCD tends to be triggered by exercise and is typically confused with exercise-induced asthma. Both gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and psychiatric illness… 
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The gold standard method for the diagnosis of VCD is fiberoptic laryngoscopy, which may also identify concomitant laryngeal abnormalities other than VCD, but as V CD is an intermittent phenomenon, the procedure should be performed while the patient is symptomatic, such as exercise tests.
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The mainstay of VCD treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach and involves recognizing triggers, appropriately managing comorbid diseases, and utilizing breathing exercises and/or speech therapy.
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The definition, epidemiology, possible pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment options for vocal cord dysfunction in athletes are discussed in detail.
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Speech therapy, including the use of special relaxed-throat breathing patterns is effective for VCD that is purely of the functional nature, and knowledge of the clinical features of VCD and identifying factors that may be contributing to the development can provide adequate clues to the correct diagnosis and management.
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Early recognition and precise identification of VFD can avoid inappropriate treatment and Spirometric evaluation is an available procedure that can be implemented for both identifying and monitoring of V FD.
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EVALUATION & MANAGEMENT/ Exercise-Induced Dyspnea:Vocal Cord Dysfunction and Asthma
TLDR
There is a need to increase AT awareness of VCD and to provide guidelines for the on-field assessment and management of exercise-induced VCD or coexisting V CD and EIA.
Vocal Cord Dysfunction: Etiologies and Treatment
TLDR
This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of the reported causative factors and treatments for vocal cord dysfunction.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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