Vocal communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

  title={Vocal communication in African elephants (Loxodonta africana).},
  author={Joseph Soltis},
  journal={Zoo biology},
  volume={29 2},
Research on vocal communication in African elephants has increased in recent years, both in the wild and in captivity, providing an opportunity to present a comprehensive review of research related to their vocal behavior. Current data indicate that the vocal repertoire consists of perhaps nine acoustically distinct call types, "rumbles" being the most common and acoustically variable. Large vocal production anatomy is responsible for the low-frequency nature of rumbles, with fundamental… CONTINUE READING
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