Vocal anatomy, tongue protrusion behaviour and the acoustics of rutting roars in free-ranging Iberian red deer stags (Cervus elaphus hispanicus).

@article{Frey2012VocalAT,
  title={Vocal anatomy, tongue protrusion behaviour and the acoustics of rutting roars in free-ranging Iberian red deer stags (Cervus elaphus hispanicus).},
  author={Roland Frey and Ilya A Volodin and Elena V. Volodina and Juan Esteban Carranza and Jer{\'o}nimo Torres-Porras},
  journal={Journal of anatomy},
  year={2012},
  volume={220 3},
  pages={271-92}
}
Roaring in rutting Iberian red deer stags Cervus elaphus hispanicus is unusual compared to other subspecies of red deer, which radiated from the Iberian refugium after the last glacial maximum. In all red deer stags, the larynx occupies a permanent low mid-neck resting position and is momentarily retracted almost down to the rostral end of the sternum during the production of rutting calls. Simultaneous with the retraction of the larynx, male Iberian red deer pronouncedly protrude the tongue… CONTINUE READING
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