# Vivaldi: a decentralized network coordinate system

@inproceedings{Dabek2004VivaldiAD, title={Vivaldi: a decentralized network coordinate system}, author={Frank Dabek and Russ Cox and M. Frans Kaashoek and Robert Tappan Morris}, booktitle={Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communication}, year={2004} }

Large-scale Internet applications can benefit from an ability to predict round-trip times to other hosts without having to contact them first. Explicit measurements are often unattractive because the cost of measurement can outweigh the benefits of exploiting proximity information. Vivaldi is a simple, light-weight algorithm that assigns synthetic coordinates to hosts such that the distance between the coordinates of two hosts accurately predicts the communication latency between the hosts…

## 1,267 Citations

### A Decentralized Network Coordinate System for Robust Internet Distance

- Computer ScienceThird International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations (ITNG'06)
- 2006

Simulation results suggest that, even under an extremely challenging flash-crowd scenario where 1740 hosts simultaneously join the system, PCoord with a 5-dimensional Euclidean model is able to converge to 11% median prediction error in 10 coordinate updates per host on average.

### Performance Improvement of a Distributed Internet Coordinates System

- Computer Science2007 4th IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference
- 2007

An improved scheme in which hosts dynamically change the set of neighbors with which they measure distances is proposed in which Vivaldi is used, and a new metric named relative delay loss (rdl) is introduced that captures how well the coordinate system picks the closest node between two given nodes.

### Meridian: A Lightweight Framework for Network Positioning without Virtual Coordinates

- Computer Science
- 2005

The system, Meridian, provides a lightweight, accurate and scalable framework for keeping track of location information for participating nodes that is scalable with logarithmic convergence when Internet latencies are modeled as a growth-constrained metric, a low-dimensional Euclidian metric, or a metric of low doubling dimension.

### A Unified Network Coordinate System for Bandwidth and Latency

- Computer Science
- 2008

This paper argues based on intuition and analysis of three real-world datasets why bandwidth and latency can be represented as tree metrics, and presents Sequoia, an accurate and light-weight system that provides virtual network positions by embedding bandwidth or latency on trees.

### Where Is My Peer? Evaluation of the Vivaldi Network Coordinate System in Azureus

- Computer ScienceNetworking
- 2009

A crawler is developed that allows to obtain from the network coordinates over one hundred thousand peers running Azureus and to measure the network and application level round trip times to these peers, confirming that network coordinates allow to correctly estimate the round trip time between two peers.

### Scrubbing the Vivaldi network coordinate system

- Computer Science
- 2010

Over the last years network coordinate systems have gained much attention as they allow for an elegant estimation of distances between peer-to-peer endsystems. The most prominent representative of…

### Estimating Hop Distance Between Arbitrary Host Pairs

- Computer ScienceIEEE INFOCOM 2009
- 2009

This paper describes a methodology for estimating an important characteristic of Internet topology - the hop distance between arbitrary pairs of end hosts and develops a novel multidimensional scaling algorithm that can be applied to both the passive and active measurements to generate pairwise hop distance estimates.

### A View from inside a Distributed Internet Coordinate System

- Computer Science2010 INFOCOM IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops
- 2010

The main finding is that a stable cluster of nodes always exists and is grouping most of the nodes in the Vivaldi system, and it is proposed to track a simple signal, which is the size of this biggest stable cluster.

### WDCS: A Weight-Based Distributed Coordinate System

- Computer ScienceCOCOA
- 2015

WDCS is proposed, a novel distributed NCS scheme that uses a well-designed algorithm to select an appropriate set of landmarks and employs the W_RUN_PACE method to eliminate the impact of measurement errors or outliers and outperforms the state-of-the-art NCS schemes in terms of prediction accuracy and convergence speed.

### A Distributed Measurement Scheme for Internet Latency Estimation

- Computer ScienceIEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
- 2011

This paper proposes a new decentralized coordinate-based solution to the problem of Internet delay measurement and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed system provides relatively accurate estimations.

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