Vitamin K promotes mineralization, osteoblast-to-osteocyte transition, and an anticatabolic phenotype by {gamma}-carboxylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

  title={Vitamin K promotes mineralization, osteoblast-to-osteocyte transition, and an anticatabolic phenotype by \{gamma\}-carboxylation-dependent and -independent mechanisms.},
  author={Gerald J. Atkins and Katie J. Welldon and Asiri R. Wijenayaka and Lynda F. Bonewald and David M. Findlay},
  journal={American journal of physiology. Cell physiology},
  volume={297 6},
The vitamin K family members phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and the menaquinones (vitamin K2) are under study for their roles in bone metabolism and as potential therapeutic agents for skeletal diseases. We have investigated the effects of two naturally occurring homologs, phytonadione (vitamin K1) and menatetrenone (vitamin K2), and those of the synthetic vitamin K, menadione (vitamin K3), on human primary osteoblasts. All homologs promoted in vitro mineralization by these cells. Vitamin K1… 

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