Vitamin K: the coagulation vitamin that became omnipotent.

  title={Vitamin K: the coagulation vitamin that became omnipotent.},
  author={Ellen C. M. Cranenburg and Leon J. Schurgers and Cees Vermeer},
  journal={Thrombosis and haemostasis},
  volume={98 1},
Vitamin K, discovered in the 1930s, functions as cofactor for the posttranslational carboxylation of glutamate residues. Gammacarboxy glutamic acid (Gla)-residues were first identified in prothrombin and coagulation factors in the 1970s; subsequently, extra-hepatic Gla proteins were described, including osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein (MGP). Impairment of the function of osteocalcin and MGP due to incomplete carboxylation results in an increased risk for developing osteoporosis and vascular… 

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Vitamin K Beyond Coagulation to Uses in Bone , Vascular , and Anti-Cancer Metabolism

Vitamin K is a family of structurally similar, fat-soluble 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinones that is primarily found in 2 forms and is the predominant form of vitamin K in the brain and all other tissues, except the liver.

New Perspectives for the Nutritional Value of Vitamin K in Human Health

Although most of vitamin K effects have been associated with regulation of mineralization in connective tissues through the action of matrix Gla protein (MGP) and osteocalcin (OC), the discovery of Gla-rich protein (GRP) open new perspectives on the potential therapeutic range ofitamin K.

Vitamin K-dependent proteins: functions in blood coagulation and beyond.

A clear description of the nomenclature and chemical structure of K vitamins, namely phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinones (vitamins K2) as well as their dietary sources is provided.

Matrix Gla-protein: the calcification inhibitor in need of vitamin K.

Using ELISA-based assays, uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) was demonstrated to be a promising biomarker for cardiovascular calcification detection and may have potential value for identifying patients as well as apparently healthy subjects at high risk for CVD and/or cardiovascular calcifiers.

Vitamin K and thrombosis.

Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of osteocalcin: friend or foe?

Clinical trials do not provide overall support for the suggestion that vitamin K supplementation of the general population will reduce bone loss or fracture risk, and results from in vitro and in vivo studies using animal models indicate that ucOC is an active hormone with a positive role in glucose metabolism.

Vitamin K intake and status are low in hemodialysis patients.

Compared to healthy individuals, hemodialysis patients have a poor overall vitamin K status due to low intake, and a randomized controlled trial is needed to test whether vitamin K supplementation reduces the risk of arterial calcification and mortality in hemodIALysis patients.


Vitamin K deficiencies, traditionally regarded as a cause for internal hemorrhages and  blood clotting disorders, apparently can be linked to cardiovascular calcification and  abnormal bone modelling, the  so-called calcium paradox.

US Pharmacopeial Convention safety evaluation of menaquinone-7, a form of vitamin K

The data reviewed indicate that menaquinone-7, when ingested as a dietary supplement, is not associated with any serious risk to health or with other public health concerns.

Vitamin K, an example of triage theory: is micronutrient inadequacy linked to diseases of aging?

  • J. McCannB. Ames
  • Biology, Medicine
    The American journal of clinical nutrition
  • 2009
A triage perspective reinforces recommendations of some experts that much of the population and warfarin/coumadin patients may not receive sufficient vitamin K for optimal function of VKD proteins that are important to maintain long-term health.



Vitamin K-containing dietary supplements: comparison of synthetic vitamin K1 and natto-derived menaquinone-7.

MK-7 induced more complete carboxylation of osteocalcin, and hematologists should be aware that preparations supplying 50 mug/d or more of MK-7 may interfere with oral anticoagulant treatment in a clinically relevant way.

Role of vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins in vascular calcification

The hypothesis is put forward that undercarboxylation of MGP is a risk factor for vascular calcification and that the present RDA values for vitamin K are too low to ensure full carboxylated MGP.

Vitamin K supplementation reduces serum concentrations of under-gamma-carboxylated osteocalcin in healthy young and elderly adults.

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Tissue-Specific Utilization of Menaquinone-4 Results in the Prevention of Arterial Calcification in Warfarin-Treated Rats

The observed differences between K1 and MK-4 with respect to inhibition of arterial calcification may be explained by both differences in their tissue bioavailability and cofactor utilization in the reductase/carboxylase reaction.

The mode of action of vitamin K. Identification of gamma-carboxyglutamic acid as a component of prothrombin.

It has been unambiguously demonstrated that the glutamic acid of the glutamylserine has been substituted by carboxylation of the γ carbon atom so that the dipeptide structure is modified and Presumably, the incorporation of the second γ-carboxyl group is dependent on vitamin K.

Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase in skin.

It is demonstrated that warfarin treatment in mice results in an accumulation of noncarboxylated precursor proteins in both dermal and epidermal microsomes, and a possible relation between vitamin K-dependent skin carboxylase and the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-containing protein in calcified nodules from patients with scleroderma and dermatomyositis is discussed.

A high phylloquinone intake is required to achieve maximal osteocalcin γ-carboxylation

A daily phylloquinone intake of approximately 1000 micro g is required to maximally gamma-carboxylate circulating osteocalcin.

A high phylloquinone intake is required to achieve maximal osteocalcin gamma-carboxylation.

A daily phylloquinone intake of approximately 1000 micro g is required to maximally gamma-carboxylate circulating osteocalcin.

Identification and purification to near homogeneity of the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase.

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Electrochemical detection of depressed circulating levels of vitamin K1 in osteoporosis.

It is found that the circulating levels of vitamin K1 in osteoporotic patients (who had sustained either spinal crush-fractures or fractures of the neck of the femur) were significantly lower than those of age-matched control subjects.