Vitamin K: the coagulation vitamin that became omnipotent.

@article{Cranenburg2007VitaminKT,
  title={Vitamin K: the coagulation vitamin that became omnipotent.},
  author={Ellen C. M. Cranenburg and Leon J. Schurgers and Cees Vermeer},
  journal={Thrombosis and haemostasis},
  year={2007},
  volume={98 1},
  pages={
          120-5
        }
}
Vitamin K, discovered in the 1930s, functions as cofactor for the posttranslational carboxylation of glutamate residues. Gammacarboxy glutamic acid (Gla)-residues were first identified in prothrombin and coagulation factors in the 1970s; subsequently, extra-hepatic Gla proteins were described, including osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein (MGP). Impairment of the function of osteocalcin and MGP due to incomplete carboxylation results in an increased risk for developing osteoporosis and vascular… 

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Vitamin K Beyond Coagulation to Uses in Bone , Vascular , and Anti-Cancer Metabolism

Vitamin K is a family of structurally similar, fat-soluble 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinones that is primarily found in 2 forms and is the predominant form of vitamin K in the brain and all other tissues, except the liver.

New Perspectives for the Nutritional Value of Vitamin K in Human Health

Although most of vitamin K effects have been associated with regulation of mineralization in connective tissues through the action of matrix Gla protein (MGP) and osteocalcin (OC), the discovery of Gla-rich protein (GRP) open new perspectives on the potential therapeutic range ofitamin K.

Vitamin K-dependent proteins: functions in blood coagulation and beyond.

A clear description of the nomenclature and chemical structure of K vitamins, namely phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinones (vitamins K2) as well as their dietary sources is provided.

Matrix Gla-protein: the calcification inhibitor in need of vitamin K.

Using ELISA-based assays, uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) was demonstrated to be a promising biomarker for cardiovascular calcification detection and may have potential value for identifying patients as well as apparently healthy subjects at high risk for CVD and/or cardiovascular calcifiers.

Vitamin K and thrombosis.

Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of osteocalcin: friend or foe?

Clinical trials do not provide overall support for the suggestion that vitamin K supplementation of the general population will reduce bone loss or fracture risk, and results from in vitro and in vivo studies using animal models indicate that ucOC is an active hormone with a positive role in glucose metabolism.

Vitamin K intake and status are low in hemodialysis patients.

Compared to healthy individuals, hemodialysis patients have a poor overall vitamin K status due to low intake, and a randomized controlled trial is needed to test whether vitamin K supplementation reduces the risk of arterial calcification and mortality in hemodIALysis patients.

THE NEW FACE OF VITAMIN K – MORE THAN BLOOD CLOTTING FACTOR

Vitamin K deficiencies, traditionally regarded as a cause for internal hemorrhages and  blood clotting disorders, apparently can be linked to cardiovascular calcification and  abnormal bone modelling, the  so-called calcium paradox.

US Pharmacopeial Convention safety evaluation of menaquinone-7, a form of vitamin K

The data reviewed indicate that menaquinone-7, when ingested as a dietary supplement, is not associated with any serious risk to health or with other public health concerns.

Vitamin K, an example of triage theory: is micronutrient inadequacy linked to diseases of aging?

  • J. McCannB. Ames
  • Biology, Medicine
    The American journal of clinical nutrition
  • 2009
A triage perspective reinforces recommendations of some experts that much of the population and warfarin/coumadin patients may not receive sufficient vitamin K for optimal function of VKD proteins that are important to maintain long-term health.
...

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