Vitamin E: function and metabolism

@article{BrigeliusFlohe1999VitaminEF,
  title={Vitamin E: function and metabolism},
  author={Regina Brigelius-Flohé and Maret G. Traber},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
  year={1999},
  volume={13},
  pages={1145 - 1155}
}
Although vitamin E has been known as an essential nutrient for reproduction since 1922, we are far from understanding the mechanisms of its physiological functions. Vitamin E is the term for a group of tocopherols and tocotrienols, of which α‐tocopherol has the highest biological activity. Due to the potent antioxidant properties of tocopherols, the impact of α‐tocopherol in the prevention of chronic diseases believed to be associated with oxidative stress has often been studied, and beneficial… 
Vitamin E: non-antioxidant roles.
Molecular Aspects of α-Tocotrienol Antioxidant Action and Cell Signalling
TLDR
Tocotrienols have beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases both by inhibiting LDL oxidation and by down-regulating 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, a key enzyme of the mevalonate pathway.
Bioactivity of vitamin E
More than 80 years after the discovery of the essentiality of vitamin E for mammals, the molecular basis of its action is still an enigma. From the eight different forms of vitamin E, only
Vitamin E: α-Tocopherol and the Other Forms of Vitamin E
Vitamin E has been a generic term for all tocopherol and tocotrienol derivatives. The most active form of vitamin E isoforms in vivo is regarded to be -tocopherol which is the only form defined as
Molecular Mechanisms of Protective Effects of Vitamin E in Atherosclerosis Molecular Aspects of a-Tocotrienol Antioxidant Action and Cell Signalling 1
TLDR
Tocotrienols have beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases both by inhibiting LDL oxidation and by down-regulating 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, a key enzyme of the mevalonate pathway.
Vitamin E Nicotinate
TLDR
It is identified that α-tocopheryl nicotinate occurs endogenously in the heart and that its level is dramatically decreased in heart failure, indicating the possible biological importance of this vitamin E ester.
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