Vitamin E: function and metabolism

  title={Vitamin E: function and metabolism},
  author={Regina Brigelius-Flohé and Maret G. Traber},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
  pages={1145 - 1155}
Although vitamin E has been known as an essential nutrient for reproduction since 1922, we are far from understanding the mechanisms of its physiological functions. Vitamin E is the term for a group of tocopherols and tocotrienols, of which α‐tocopherol has the highest biological activity. Due to the potent antioxidant properties of tocopherols, the impact of α‐tocopherol in the prevention of chronic diseases believed to be associated with oxidative stress has often been studied, and beneficial… 
Vitamin E: non-antioxidant roles.
Molecular Aspects of α-Tocotrienol Antioxidant Action and Cell Signalling
Tocotrienols have beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases both by inhibiting LDL oxidation and by down-regulating 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, a key enzyme of the mevalonate pathway.
Bioactivity of vitamin E
More than 80 years after the discovery of the essentiality of vitamin E for mammals, the molecular basis of its action is still an enigma. From the eight different forms of vitamin E, only
Vitamin E: α-Tocopherol and the Other Forms of Vitamin E
Vitamin E has been a generic term for all tocopherol and tocotrienol derivatives. The most active form of vitamin E isoforms in vivo is regarded to be -tocopherol which is the only form defined as
Molecular Mechanisms of Protective Effects of Vitamin E in Atherosclerosis Molecular Aspects of a-Tocotrienol Antioxidant Action and Cell Signalling 1
Tocotrienols have beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases both by inhibiting LDL oxidation and by down-regulating 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, a key enzyme of the mevalonate pathway.
Vitamin E Nicotinate
It is identified that α-tocopheryl nicotinate occurs endogenously in the heart and that its level is dramatically decreased in heart failure, indicating the possible biological importance of this vitamin E ester.


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  • Biology
    Critical reviews in toxicology
  • 1993
The antioxidant chemistry of alpha-tocopherol is described and the experimental evidence for the linkage ofalpha-tocopherylhydroquinone turnover to cellular metabolism through redox cycles is evaluated.
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  • Biology, Medicine
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Clinical evidence from heavy drinkers and from experimental work in rats suggests that alcohol may increase oxidation of alpha-tocopherol, causing reduced tissue concentrations ofAlpha-Tocopherol.
Tocopherol‐mediated peroxidation of lipoproteins: implications for vitamin E as a potential antiatherogenic supplement
The benefits of vitamin E supplementation alone or together with other antioxidants that work in concert with α‐TOH in ameliorating lipoprotein lipid peroxidation in the artery wall and, hence, atherosclerosis are discussed.
Gamma-tocopherol detoxification of nitrogen dioxide: superiority to alpha-tocopherol.
A fundamental difference in the chemical reactivities of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tociperol with nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which leads to the formation of a nitrosating agent from alpha-tropopherol, but not from gamma-ocopherol is described, which suggests the superiority of gamma-ococopherol in a mammalian biological assay and a role for endogenous NO production in promotion of neoplastic transformation.
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These data provide the first simultaneous documentation of TH antioxidant reactions and antioxidant effects in an intact organ system during oxidative stress.
Vitamin E as an antioxidant in vitro and in vivo.
Vitamin E and total lipid-soluble, chain-breaking antioxidant concentrations in some normal and cancerous tissues have been measured and a number of unresolved problems relating to the action of vitamin E in vivo are discussed.
γ-Tocopherol traps mutagenic electrophiles such as NOx and complements α-tocopherol: Physiological implications
Peroxynitrite, a powerful mutagenic oxidant and nitrating species, is formed by the near diffusion-limited reaction of ·NO and O2⨪ during activation of phagocytes. Chronic inflammation induced by
Vitamin E in humans: demand and delivery.
The use of supplemental vitamin E in chronic diseases such as ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, cataracts, Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's disease, and impared immune function, as well as in subjects receiving total parenterol nutrition is discussed.
Antioxidant and prooxidant activity of alpha-tocopherol in human plasma and low density lipoprotein.
The results indicate that the level of oxidative stress and concentration of co-antioxidants, such as ascorbate, capable of regenerating alpha-tocopherol in the oxidizing lipoprotein particle, appear to represent major factors determining alpha-ocopherol activity towards oxidation both in human plasma and LDL.